Schaff, Philip. History of the Christian Church (The Complete Eight Volumes in One). Amazon Kindle Edition, 2014.
Volume 1, Ch. 1, “Preparation for Christianity in the History of the Jewish and Heathen World” Loc. 979-1478.
§8. “Central Position of Christ in the History of the World” (Schaff 2014, Loc. 997).
Schaff sees the coming of Christ as the pivotal time in world history, prepared from creation (Schaff 2014, Loc. 1009).There are recollections of creation, fall, and redemptive hopes “even in the heathen religions” (Schaff 2014, Loc. 1012). In Christianity we find reconciliation of man to God and God to man, what the world has awaited (Schaff 2014, Loc. 1020).
§9. “Judaism” (Schaff 2014, Loc. 1034). Schaff provides an extensive bibliography of literature about Judaism. He identifies them in brief as God’s chosen people from whom salvation comes (Schaff 2014, Loc. 1097). He then draws a brief history of Israel as the people from whom Christ comes. He then makes comparisons of the groups within Judaism, Islam, and Greek philosophy (Schaff 2014, Loc. 1136).
§10. “The Law, and the Prophecy” (Schaff 2014, Loc. 1158). Jesus and the apostles held the Old Testament in high regard, viewing it as divine revelation, pointing to Jesus.
§11. “Heathenism” (Schaff 2014, Loc. 1220). After a bibliography Schaff introduces heathenism as religion created by the imagination of fallen humans (Schaff 2014, Loc. 1255). He observes the tendency of the gods to be very like humans with all their faults. There is not definitive hope of redemption, which led to a quick reception of Christianity (Schaff 2014, Loc. 1287).
§12. “Grecian Literature, and the Roman Empire” (Schaff 2014, Loc. 1309). Greek philosophy and Roman governance gave people the tools to express the Gospel and bring order in the Church.
§13. “Judaism and Heathenism in Co” (Schaff 2014, Loc. 1423). Jews had colonized much of the Greek and Roman world by the first century. They were well known, though not well liked, by the pagans.