Aristotle, and W. Rhys Roberts. Rhetoric. Mineola, NY: Dover, 2004. Kindle Electronic Edition.
Book I, chapter 10.
Aristotle here turns attention to accusation and defense. In cases, Aristotle identifies three essential issues: “First, the nature and number of the incentives to wrongdoing; second, the state of mind of wrongdoers; third, the kind of persons who are wronged, and their conditions” (Aristotle I.10, B 1368b). First, though, he defines wrongdoing. “We may describe ‘wrongdoing’ as injury voluntarily inflicted contrary to law” (Aristotle I.10, B 1368b). All people are moved by their individual temperaments. Aristotle describes various temperaments and the types of injustice which could be induced by those character qualities.
Aristotle does admit the concept of chance (Aristotle I.10, B 1369b). Some things happen by chance, some by compulsion, some by habit, some by reason. He asserts that when we do acts, they are finally voluntary and are in pursuit of something we desire (Aristotle I.10, B 1369b). Some of these actions are evil, or at least in the opinion of the actor are attempts to guard against a greater evil.