Jungmann, Josef A., S.J. "Chapter Fifteen: Christological Disputes and Their Influence on the Liturgy." The Early Liturgy to the Time of Gregory the Great. (translated by Francis A. Brunner, C.S.S. R., Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press, 1959, pp. 188-198.
The fourht century saw disputes within Christianity, particularly centered around Christology (Jungmann 1959, 188). These disputes led to some specific choices of wording in prayers and other elements of the liturgy. Jungmann specifically observes that the Arian controversy with its view that God the Son was not eternally existent had a strong influence on prayers. At issue was whether the Son was "honored and adored just like the Father" (Jungmann 1959, 189). The nuance of prayer "through Christ," as used in the canonical Epistles, helps to clarify the equality of Father and Son (Jungmann 1959, 190).
The doxological formulas making specific claims of equality for Father, Son, and Holy Spirit were very common up to the fourth century. Jungmann points out that any omission of this pattern could leave an open door to an Arian view of subordinationism (Jungmann 1959, 192). The Arians would take "through the Son" to express "Him as in some sort of intermediary stage below the Father" (Jungmann 1959, 192).
Because these doxologies could be misunderstood, the word "through" was often replaced with "and." The Father, Son, and Spirit were very specifcally equated so there could be no question (Jungmann 1959, 193). These changes were not without controversy, as critics could say they were innovations and that the confession could be seen as self-contradictory. The liturgical forms did gradually change, and the Arian controversy became less intense by the end of the fourth century. However, Jungmann sees the adjustments as being significant both due to the language used and the fact that developments did not happen uniformly and throughout the whole Church (Jungmann 1959, 194).
The rise of the feasts of Christmas and Epiphany may have had a significant influence on liturgy as well. Jungmann notes that both were widely adopted about the same itme, with Crhistmas first in the West and Epiphany in the Ast (Jungmann 1959, 195).
Jungmann particularly notes that in the East, Epiphany quickly came to honor not only Christ but also Mary. By the fifth century, the conflict over the Nestorian heresy was based on the result of the incarnation. The dispute eventually took on the form of a question, "Is Mary the mother of Jesus or the mother of God?" The orthodox conclusion was that she would be recognized as the "mother of God" thus affirming that Jesus was one person with a human and a divine nature (Jungmann 1959, 196).
Jungmann finally notes that one result of Arianism was a decrease in the reception of Communion (Jungmann 1959, 197). The emphasis on the exalted nature of Christ led some to conclude they could not approach to receive at His table. This is one of the sadder outcomes, as Jungmann notes a communion rubric saying "Draw near in fear and partake in holiness" (Jungmann 1959, 198). Though Jesus is the mighty God, the Sacrament is to be received.