Jungmann, Josef A., S.J. "Chapter Thirteen: The Role of the Liturgy in the Transformation of Pagan Society." The Early Liturgy to the Time of Gregory the Great. (translated by Francis A. Brunner, C.S.S. R., Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press, 1959, pp. 164-174.
Jungmann sees the fourth century as a time of transformation from a world with a minority Christian population to one dominated by Christianity. He asks, therefore, what role the Christian liturgy may have played in this process (Jungmann 1959, 164). The influx of people departing from paganism would influence some customs of the church. At the same time, the walk of Christians, influenced by liturgy, would have an effect on the pagan society.
Jungmann asserts an unequivocal view. "The formative power of the liturgy was both profound and vast" (Jungmann 1959, 165). Christianity birthed a society which was different in many ways from the paganism which had previously held sway.
Jungmann seems almost surprised to note that the fourishing of a Christian society happened in a time without Christian schools or a highly developed view of the care of souls (Jungmann 1959, 165). Rather, catechesis took place in families and the power of the living liturgical language, practiced in the congregation, transformed lives (Jungmann 1959, 166-167). Extensive Scripture readings, typological interpretations, and use of Psalms engaged the congregation with many biblical concepts. Learning parts of the Scripture by heart is certainly of great value.
In addition to extensive exposure to Scripture, the liturgy teaches people to pray. The participatory nature of liturgical prayer engages the congregation directly in prayer (Jungmann 1959, 169).
Along with participation in prayers, Jungmann thinks the regular participation in the Sacrament was very important. Not only did the people bring bread and wine in the offering, but they received nourishment for their faith through the Sacrament. The Sacrament was celebrated every Sunday and on some other occasions. Bringing the lements to the altar in a procession underlined the congregant's participation in the Eucharist (Jungmann 1959, 171). Furthermore, the very words and actions in the Eucharist taught about central doctrines of the Church. This served to build unity of the Christian faith (Jungmann 1959, 172).
All Christians were expected to attend Sunday worship reliably. Jungmann sees evidence of this as early as 200, with actual edicts requiring attendance by the very early 4th century (Jungmann 1959, 173).