Daniélou, Jean, S.J. "Chapter Four: The Types of Baptism: Creation and the Deluge." The Bible and the Liturgy." Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1956, pp. 70-85.
Daniélou visits the Old Testament types of baptism, observing that they were at the forefront of catechesis in the patristic period. Tertullian's De Baptismo enumerates the types, and it is followed in turn by Didymus of Alexandria, Cyril, and Ambrose (Daniélou 1956, 70). The types serve in the Fathers' writings to demonstrate that baptism has always ben practiced in Christianity with a very paticular meaning. The particular meaning is explained by the consideration of the Old Testament passages (Daniélou 1956, 71).
The water found at creation is normally the first type presented in catechesis (Daniélou 1956, 71). Because there is a first creation and a promise of a new creation in Christ, the Fathers sought out a connection, which was water. The waters of creation find a regenerative continuation in baptism (Daniélou 1956, 72). Tertullian takes the waters both to give life and to be blessed y the Holy Spirit (de baptismo ch. 2). The concept, from Genesis 1, of the waters bringing forth the sea creatures suggested to Ambrose that there was a direct parallel to the water of baptism bringing Christians to life (Daniélou 1956, 74).
Water is not only seen as life-giving but also as destructive. "The Deluge is one of the types of Baptism most frequently cited by the Fathers and, as we shall see, one of the most obvious" (Daniélou 1956, 75). The conception of water as destructive ties it well to the death of Christ. The destruction of the sinful world and the new birth of the human race through Noah serves as a symbol of Christ's death and resurrection as well as our old life being put to death so as to be replaced by a new life in Christ (Daniélou 1956, 77).
Peter's explanation of baptism, viewing it as an antitype of the flood, is expanded in the Fathers, with attention being paid to the significant number of eight people on the ark, with comparison to the eighth day as the day of resurrection (Daniélou 1956, 78). The image of eight is applied to salvation not only based on the eight survivors on the ark of 1 Peter 2, but also in the eight generations from Adam to Noah, described in terms of judgment in 2 Peter 2 (Daniélou 1956, 80).
The dove, as a symbol of the Holy Spirit, present as a messenger of good news to Noah and present at Jesus' baptism, also becomes a type of baptism (Daniélou 1956, 82). The ark, for Tertullian, and even for Irenaeus, becomes a figure of the Church, though Daniélou does not consider this to fit into any scriptural categories (Daniélou 1956, 83).