Quintilian, and J.S. Watson. Institutes of Oratory. Edited by Lee Honeycutt, 2010. Kindle Electronic Edition. Book 11 Chapter 3.
In book 11 chapter 3 Quintilian discusses the delivery of speeches in detail. The chapter is quite lengthy. He discusses everything from the use of the voice to gesture, expression, clthing, and the need for careful practice. Effective delivery is very powerful in every way (Quintilian XI.3.2). Quintilian supports this idea with many examples. Careful preparation and presentation is a matter of prime importance (Quintilian XI.3.10). This is both a matter of natural ability and of training (Quintilian XI.3.12). The voice should be strong and unimpeded (Quintilian XI.3.15). Quintilian recommends speaking practice much the same way an athlete practices, as it is a physical skill (Quintilian XI.3.25). Pronunciation of each word is important to the task of delivery (Quintilian XI.3.33). The roups of words should be broken up according to sense, not merely at random (Quintilian XI.3.35). The context drives the amount of time to allow at different breaks (Quintilian XI.3.38). Quintilian continues to speak of vocal control, giving numerous examples. He especially finds a sing-song tone annoying (Quintilian XI.3.57). Meaningful gesture is also of great value (Quintilian XI.3.65). Quintilian illustrates the posture and all movements as gesture. He specifically speaks of positive and negative hand gestures in some detail (Quintilian XI.3.92ff). Gestures can and should be thought out and purposeful (Quintilian XI.3.110). Quintilian advocates orators paying attention, but not excessive attention to their clothes and hair (Quintilian XI.3.137). The orator also needs to adjust delivery based on the audience and setting. Finding an appropriate style of presentation is very important (Quintilian XI.3.150). Quintilian continues with a number of checklist type question the orator can ask himself. Above all, the orator must find the proper type of decorum for the setting and the topic (Quintilian XI.3.177). This is part of the art, not a science.