Schaff, Philip. History of the Christian Church (The Complete Eight Volumes in One). Amazon Kindle Edition, 2014.
Volume 2, Ante-Nicene Christianity A.D. 100-325, “Chapter 11. The Heresies of the Ante-Nicene Age” Sections 112-136, Loc. 17655-18757.
§ 112. Judaism and Heathenism within the Church
Christianity dealt not only witha broader culture which had deep differences, but also with challenges from within. Specifically, Schaff addresses “Judaism and heathenism concealed in the garb of Christianity” (Schaff 2014, Loc. 17655). The heresies arising within Christianity were central to much of the written evidence we have before the Nicene Council.
Since the early second century, Schaff finds, it has been common for Jewish and pagan thought to enter Christianity so as to change Christian thought and practice, rather than in order to be changed (Schaff 2014, Loc. 17665). The curch was also attacked by Gnosticism and Ebiionism, which attempted to bind Christians to the Law (Schaff 2014, Loc. 17676). “Ebionism makes salvation depend on observance of the law; Gnosticism, on speculative knowledge (Schaff 2014, Loc. 17682). Both forces are deadly to orthodox Christianity. Schaff describes the several outcomes of each in some detail. It is clear that the two streams of error have plagued Christianity for many generations.