Gibbs, Jeffrey A. “Matthew 10:16-23: Division and Judgment in Israel." Matthew 1:1-11:1. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 2006, pp. 515-524.
Matthew 10:16-23 shifts from a specific emphasis on the particular mission of the Twelve to a broader focus which includes Gentiles (v. 18). Gibbs notes that the two comparisons of verse 16 suggest Christians are to be aware of dangers but shold enter them willingly (Gibbs 2006, 515). The start of verse 16 rathe clearly serves as a pivot point, as Jesus speaks directly to the Twelve, rather than Matthew speaking about them (Gibbs 2006, 518). Gibbs further notes that in the persecutions described, the "rulers and kings" of verse 18 are distinguished from the "Gentiles." This leads him to take the primary emphasis to remain on the Twelve and their work in Israel (Gibbs 2006, 519).
Gibbs further sees that verses 19-20 and 22b-23 speak of an end to the work of the apostles as they receive the gift of the Holy Spirit, which gives them words until the coming of Christ (Gibbs 2006, 520).
Gibbs acknowledges the difficulty inherent in Jesus' words of 23b, "until the Son of Man comes" (Gibbs 2006, 521). It strongly implies an event in the lifetime of the apostles. Gibbs sees a strong parallel in Matthew 23:34-39, which may assist us in understanding this event. The desolation of the temple, spoken of in 23:26, rather plainly refers to the Roman sack of AD 70 (Gibbs 2006, 522). Therefore, Gibbs takes Jesus in chapter 10 to be referring to a coming in judgment which he will accomplish through the Romans.
Gibbs takes this passage to apply to the greater context of Christianity primarily as a warning tha Christians will endure persecution. This realization does not, however, suggest tha they should not speak the Gospel boldly (Gibbs 2006, 523). Rather, Christians recognize that the Holy Spirit will be with them.