McDonnell, Kilian & Montague, George T. "Chapter Three: Pentecostal Fire: Spirit-Baptism in Luke-Acts." Christian Initiation and Baptism in the Holy Spirit: Evidence from the First Eight Centuries. Collegeville, MN: The Liturgical Press, 1991, 23-41.
References to the Holy Spirit are much more frequent in Luke and Acts than in Matthew or Mark. Luke 3:16 speaks plainly about a baptism in the Holy Spirit and fire, with elements of judgment and healing (Luke 7:18-23). Luke further speaks of tongues of fire along with other Pentecost phenomena (McDonnell & Montague 1991, 23). Montague further notes that some, including Tertullian, have taken Jesus' prayer after his baptism, resulting in a reception of the Holy Spirit, to suggest a normative expectation of a second blessing as a response to prayer (McDonnell & Montague 1991, 24). Luke connects the Spirit in Jesus not only with prophetic gifts, but also with ministry to the poor. He also considers the Holy Spirit as the one in charge of Jesus' temptation by Satan (Luke 4) (McDonnell & Montague 1991, 26).
At the start of Acts chapter two, Luke repeats the promise of the Holy Spirit, tying it very clearly to the supernatural signs described at Pentecost. Montague particularly notes that here the gifts are separated from baptism in water (McDonnell & Montague 1991, 27). However, he also observes that many have tied water baptism before Pentecost to an impartation of the Holy Spirit, while they view water baptism after Pentecost as implicitly delivering the Holy Spirit.
Montague finds no command of Jesus to baptize within Luke and Acts. However, there are descriptions of people being baptized, normally in the passive voice, implying that the important action is that of God (McDonnell & Montague 1991, 29). Further, in Acts 2 and following, Luke descries baptism with an expectation of reception of the Holy Spirit. There is no apparent waiting period or time of expectation. It is an immediate event (McDonnell & Montague 1991, 30).
In review of other passages from Acts which describe signs of the Holy Spirit, Montague reviews Acts 4:23-31, where a place is shaken as a response to prayer, as well as Acts 8:9-19, where some who had been baptized earlier were prayed over and received the Holy Spirit (McDonnell & Montague 1991, 31). Montague discusses the second event at length. At issue is whether the early Christians divided people into different categories based on their evidencing spiritual signs or not in conjunction with their baptism. Montague concludes "that the gift of the Holy Spirit was considered to be an essential element of Christian initiation" (McDonnell & Montague 1991, 35).
Acts 10-11 presents an unusual situation, as the members of Cornelius' household show evidence of the Holy Spirit prior to baptism (McDonnell & Montague 1991, 36). Here, baptism is seen as the physical sign which indicates participation in the Church. The gift of the Holy Spirit incorporated the believers, but baptism was still applied to them as an essential rite.
In Acts 19, Luke records an outpouring of the Holy Spirit on some who were called "disciples." Montague takes them to be people who believed in some way, but who possibly were not integrated into the mainstream group of Christians in Ephesus (McDonnell & Montague 1991, 38). The proof they received the Spirit was their speaking in tongues. Montague concludes that Luke "expected some experiential or charismatic manifestation to follow reception of the Spirit" (McDonnell & Montague 1991, 39).
Montague concludes that in Luke baptism involves both water and a gift of the Holy Spirit. Occasionally there was a delay in the reception of signs of the Holy Spirit, but this was not assumed to be normative (McDonnell & Montague 1991, 39).