Gibbs, Jeffrey A. “The Son of God Reveals God’s Original Intention in the Torah: Introduction to Matthew 5:21-48.” St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 2006, pp. 276-279.
In Matthew 5:21-48, Jesus makes six statements in which he contrasts his word with something else. Gibbs finds that Jesus normally makes no disclaimers when citing the Old Testament. He also normally affirms God’s Law and Prophets, but occasionally disputes an interpretation. Gibbs takes that to be the sense in Matthew 5. Jesus is helping people understand the right implications of the Torah (Gibbs 2006, 277).
Gibbs does not see Matthew 5:21-48 as “case law” but rather as an overview of God’s Law. He does not think every possible situation is included here (Gibbs 2006, 277).
The first century context of Jesus’ words is very important. Gibbs observes that Jesus assumes the altar and sacrifice in Jerusalem were still in operation. The assumptions of a first century Jewish concept of marriage are in effect. Gibbs sees this understanding as essential to grasping the teachings correctly (Gibbs 2006, 279).