John narrates a variety of signs with the stated purpose of poeple believing that Jesus is the Christ (Carson 1991, 167). Carson notes that John’s careful counting of days, which occurs only here, culminates with the sign of turning water into wine on the seventh day (Carson 1991, 168). The sign, then, may be associated with rest.
In the narrative of the wedding at Cana, Carson notes the shame which would be associated with running out of wine (Carson 1991, 169). Jesus’ response to his mother’s request, though not disrespectful, is a rather abrupt and forceful statement (Carson 1991, 171). The reference to Jesus’ “hour” not having come may well suggest his coming death and resurrection. Carson considers Jesus to frequently move discussions of natural or temporal matters to refer to eternal situations (Carson 1991, 172). Likewise, Carson sees the use of a water pot for purification as a vessel for wine to represent a foreshadowing of the abundant joy of God’s cleansed people (Carson 1991, 173). Carson notes the closure of 2:11, where the sign reveals Jesus’ glory. Though the signs are not numbered clearly in the Gospel, most people will identify six or seven (Carson 1991, 175).
Shortly after the wedding, Jesus and his disciples go to Jerusalem for the Passover. Carson suggests that the “cleansing of the temple has not been moved by John out of its chronological order. He thinks, rather, that the clearest reading of the texts points to two incidents, separated by several years (Carson 1991, 178). Carson notes that Jesus did not accuse the people in the temple courts of any wrongdoing other than their location (Carson 1991, 179).
Carson notes the evident faith of people in 2:23-25, but takes Jesus’ choice not to trust the people as a sign that their faith was inadequate (Carson 1991, 184). Jesus’ discussion with Nicodemus follows this immediately.
Carson, D. A. The Gospel According to John. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1991.
Carson, D. A., and Douglas J. Moo. An Introduction to the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2005.