Senn, Frank C. "Chapter Eight: Luther's Liturgical Reforms." Christian Liturgy: Catholic and Evangelical. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1997, 267-298.
Luther's reforms were largely carried out in his opposition to contemporary views of sacraments. The critique of the mass, in Senn's view, was nuanced. An understanding of his actual view is necessary for discussion to continue (Senn 1997, 268). Luther's desire was not to create a scholastic explanation for the presence of Christ, but rather to embrace the mystery of his presence. Within Luther's objection was that the mass could be seen as a matter of works righteousness (Senn 1997, 269). The concept of works, as used by Luther, further is seen as the opposite of faith. By considering the eucharist as a work Luther considers faith in God to be excluded (Senn 1997, 270). The concept of the mass as a human act which merits God's favor is opposed to Christian faith. It is rather to be seen as a work of God which delivers God's favor to man.
Luther further objected to the Roman view of the mass as a sacrifice which humans offer to God (Senn 1997, 271). The intent of the sacrament, according to the institution passages, is that it be a gift from God to man. It was essential to Luther that the direction of the offering be kept in its proper order, God to man (Senn 1997, 272). The Lutheran liturgy therefore omitted the sacrificial language from the eucharistic liturgy.
Senn observes that, though Luther made a radical change in the sacrificial language of the mass, he was conservative in his treatment of other parts (Senn 1997, 275). While there were various liturgical experiments under way around 1522, Luther made an attempt to avoid unnecessary innovations (Senn 1997, 276). Senn continues by discussing the details of Luther's order of the mass. Of note, several elements of congregational involvement were brought in as a temporary solution, placing a German version of an element right after the Latin version. In some instances, the temporary adjustment became permanent (Senn 1997, 280).
Senn further reviews Luther's German mass of 1526 (Senn 1997, 281ff). Luther's was not the first German setting. Senn reports versions as early as 1522. Luther's version was prepared with a special concern of making the liturgy have an idiomatic German tone, not merely to be a translation of words (Senn 1997, 282).
The Lutheran Reformation saw a flowering of hymnody, as the culture at large, which already used music extensively, developed music as a means to teach and spread theology (Senn 1997, 285). Luther contributed to German hymnody and also encouraged others in composition and use of new music (Senn 1997, 286).
Events through the course of the Christian life received liturgical adjustments at Luther's hand. Senn recalls his earlier comments about baptism as God's work rather than a human work. This led to some revision, though not as extensive as that applied to the mass. In general, Luther considered that Rome had adhered to the essential baptismal faith (Senn 1997, 287). The emphasis on the need for personal appropriation by faith of one's baptism was clear (Senn 1997, 288). Luther is credited with orders of baptism from 1523 and 1526, both reviewed in detail by Senn (Senn 1997, 290-291).
Senn previously described the rite of confirmation, where the bishop would verify a child had been baptized. Luther considered such a process to have no basis in Scripture, but he supported catechesis and the examination of children by pastors (Senn 1997, 292-293).
Luther encouraged but did not require private confession (Senn 1997, 293). He did write a series of guidelines to prepare for confession. The absolution was of much greater importance to him than was the assigned performance of penance (Senn 1997, 294). The purpose of confession is to receive and trust in God's forgiveness.
Luther's view of vocation had great social consequences. Senn notes from Luther's view of the priesthood of all believers to the primacy of marriage in society, to the marriage of priests and the priestly rather than episcopal ordination of priests, the Lutheran Reformation served to make significant adjustments to the societal order (Senn 1997, 296-297).