Draper questions whether Two Ways material in Lactantius’ Divinae Institutiones vi.3 and Epitome 59-60 depends on material from the Didache or on other sources of a Two Ways tradition. Draper here considers the fact that Lactantius has what Draper considers “unmistakeable use of the Jesus tradition contained in Did. i.3-ii.1” (Draper 1989, 112). Since lactantius almost always uses Scripture as quoted by Cyprian, rather than showing a direct use of the New Testament, Draper considers this a definite reference to the Didache. He displays the similarities in columns of Latin and Greek. “The key items in the Didache are set out in the same order” in Lactantius (Draper 1989, 113). Further, some linguistic oddities which are found in Luke and Justin but not in Matthew, as well as oddities found in the Didache, strongly suggest dependence on that material (Draper 1989, 114).
Draper supposes that some of the material, including a command for perfection (Matt. 5:48, Lk. 6:36) is from a Q source, but that a language change in Lactantius has no precedent in Matthew or Luke. It is found, though, in the Didache (Draper 1989, 114-115). Likewise, teaching that charity needs to be given to “suitable” men, in the terms described in Didache i.5-6, is contradicted in similar terms in Lactantius in vi.12 (Draper 1989, 115).
Draper’s conclusion is that Lactantius appears to be conversant with the Didache, possibly from his own time of catechesis. This suggests continued use of the text in the third and fourth centuries.