Balabanski, Vicky. "Chapter Six: Didache 16 as a Develoopment in Christian Eschatology." Eschatology in the Making: Mark, Matthew, and the Didache. Cambridge: University Press, 1997, 180-205.
Christian eschatology was not only expressed in the biblical texts. Balabanski considers Didache 16 as an example of eschatological development in early Christianity (Balabanski 1997, 180). After presenting the text of the chapter in Greek and in English, Balabanski observes that the consensus of scholars is that Matthew 24 and Didache 16 likely have a common literary source.
Biblical critics tend to see the relationship in terms of the Didachis drawing on source material but with an awareness of the finished version of one or more Synoptic Gospel. The references to synoptic material tend to be allusions rather than quotations (Balabanski 1997, 186). Balabanski makes substantial use of the work of W.-D. Köhler in this regard.
Balabanski asks whether the overall structure and the logical patterns of Didache 16 might show a clear influence from Matthew 24 (Balabanski 1997, 191). The opening passage of each shows an emphasis on paraenesis. Both texts show an interest in the community as a whole (Balabanski 1997, 192). After this point, however, around Matthew 24:15 and Didache 16:4c, the parallel structure is less clear. However, Balabanski continues to find conceptual and structural elements which suggest a knowledge of Matthew 24 (Balabanski 1997, 194).
Köhler further argues that the Didache frequently draws on traditions which are not found in Synoptic materials (Balabanski 1997, 195). Balabanski questions the use of a common source in this case, as it would lead to the question of why each author selected different elements to use while consulting the same source (Balabanski 1997, 196).
In the end, Balabanski understands the Didache as an attempt to comment on current situations, using text and ideas from the Gospels but not as any attempt to rplace them. Therefore, ideas could be drawn from many sources, and it would not be necessary to provide every logical detail. "Its very selectivity presupposes the continued use of the Gospel, and implies that its function was to serve as an adjunct" (Balabanski 1997, 197, emphasis hers). To explore this idea Balabanski evaluates the idea of Didache 16 on the basis of the interest of different passages. For instance, the passage opens with a command to "watch." This watching is not in order to notice the Lord's coming, but to be careful of one's way of life. Both meanings can be found in the biblical texts (Balabanski 1997, 198). The interpetation here suggests the Didache does not take a primary interest in an unexpected second coming of Christ.