Mazza, Enrico. "Chapter Eight: The Structure of the Anaphora in the Catechesis of Theodore of Mopsuestia." The Origins of the Eucharistic Prayer (tr. Ronald E. Lane). Collegeville, MN: The Liturgical Press, 1995, 287-331.
Theodore of Mopsuestia delivered his Mystagogical Catecheses no earlier than 381, as verified by a reference to the Council of Constantinople, which convened in 381, and, clearly, prior to his death in 428 (Mazza 1995, 287). After a review of scholarshiop and logical arguments found in the Catechesis, Mazza favors a relatively late date for composition, but considers it still an open question. An accurate date would shed light on the specific condition of the Church in a particular place and time (Mazza 1995, 290).
Thedore provides a brief text of a liturgical ritual, then explains that ritual in detail. He deals with "baptism in three homilies and [speaks] of the Eucharist in two" (Mazza 1995, 290). Mazza does not consider it clear that there is a specific liturgical book from which Theodore draws his citations, though it is a possibility. He does, however, "see that Theodore considers this text [of the homily] as a genuine source of the rite and of the theologyc he is expounding" (Mazza 1995, 291). In Theodore, the liturgy cited is presented as a given.
Mazza speaks at some length of the liturgy around a blessing of the Lord's peace prior to reception of the Sacrament, describing the role of the officiant and of the congregation (Mazza 1995, 291-294). He describes in somewhat less detail the concept of resurrection as presented in the baptismal liturgy (Mazza 1995, 294-296). Mazza then proceeds to discuss the theme of the death and resurrection of Christ as Theodore applies it to the specific actions of the Ecuharist (Mazza 1995, 296-302) up through the blessing of the bread and wine. It is at this time that Theodore affirms the bread and wine become the actual body and blood of the Lord, through the coming of the Holy Spirit.
Though Theodore's citation of the liturgy does not include a narrative of the institution at the Last Supper, Mazza finds that his description does speak of the Last Supper. This is consistent with anaphoras that were certainly known to Theodore (Mazza 1995, 303). However, it seems that the words of institution may not have been considered a necessary element of the eucharist at his time. Mazza therefore considers that the church order which Theodore quotes is different and older than the liturgy actually in use and upon which Theodore comments. Mazza presents his reconstruction of the two in parallel columns (Mazza 1995, 309-310). Mazza then attempts to trace the elements as found in various anaphoras, so as to identify the tradition to which Theodore may have referred. After reviewing the elements individually, Mazza concludes that the Anaphora of Basil is the most likely source quoted by Theodore as the definitive ritual which he describes (Mazza 1995, 320). The actual liturgy on which Theodore comments, differing in some points from the anaphora, was also something Theodore considered to be appropriate for teaching and use. Mazza reviews these differences in light of the Catecheses of Cyril of Jerusalem (Mazza 1995, 323ff). His conclusion is that Cyril hs the source most likely influencing the liturty in use by Theodore (Mazza 1995, 328). The matter of location remains a challenge. Mazza leans toward Tarsus, where Thedore was around 392, but concedes htat more research on baptism and the nature of anointings would be necessary so as to consider the matter in more detail (Mazza 1995, 330).