Winger, Thomas M. "Introduction: Orality and the Interpretation of the Epistles: A Brief Introduction." Ephesians. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 2014, 3-20.
Winger introduces the New Testament Epistles in terms of orality. In his estimation, the adaptation of oral sources into written documents was part of the process of creating the Gospels (Winger 2014, 4). Winger suggests that the written Epistles should best be understood as "a script for an oral production" (Winger 2014, 5). The habit in antiquity of reading aloud is an indicator of the importance of orality. Winger does briefly consider that writing was considered from Plato through Papias as inferior as a means of gaining information, an interpretation I would dispute (Winger 2014, 6). Yet it is clear, as winger affirms, that proclamation, oral delivery of a word, is considered the superior means of receiving testimony (Winger 2014, 8).
The Epistles of Paul were likely expected to be read in their entirety at worship gatherings. Winger notes Justin Martyr saying that reading lasts "as long as time permits" (Winger 2014, 10, quote of Justin's First Apology, 67). Most of Paul's letters require no more than 15 minutes to read. There are, additionally, liturgical features present, most notably invocations and benedictions. Winter notes comparisons here between the end of 1 Corinthians and the end of the Communion rite in Didache 14 (Winger 2014, 11).
Winger briefly details the use of a variety of oral patterns to be found in Paul's Epistles, and especially Ephesians. Some features of rhetoric common to Aristotle and others are evident (Winger 2014, 13). Paul uses a number of commonplaces, such as lists of virtues and vices. He is fond of alliteration, not always as word choice for meaning, but sometimes for sound. Rhythmic speech is also evident, along with repetition of elements to emphasize or order concepts (Winger 2014, 14). Paul uses parallelism frequently for emphasis (Winger 2014, 16). Winger also provides examples of chiasm in Paul, as well as inclusio, which he uses more as a tactic for paragraphing (Winger 2014, 17). Winger particularly illustrates this sort of construction with a chart based on Ephesians 2:1010, then one based on Ephesians 5:21-33 and, within that, on 5:21-24 (Winger 2014, 19). Paul also uses lists, often marked with conjunctions or other formulaic word patterns. All these are aids to organization and flow of ideas (Winger 2014, 19-21).