Verheyden, Joseph. "Chapter Eleven: Eschatology in the Didache and the Gospel of Matthew." in Van de Sandt, Huub (editor). Matthew and the Didache: Two Documents from the Same Jewish-Christian Milieu? Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2005, 193-215.
Both the Didache and Matthew's Gospel address the idea of the end time. Verheyden observes that while each has a section which is more or less dedicated to the concept, there are also scattered references in both works. Because of the concentration of material, Verheyden's study focuses on Didache 16 and Matthew 24-25 (Verheyden 2005, 193).
Verheyden notes the necessity of tracing a relationship between the Didache and Matthew so as to rightly analyze the statements. He concludes, "The Didache contains verbal and content parallels with passages from Matthew's eschatological discourse in all verses of Chapter 16 except v. 7 which is a quotation from the OT that is however probably also alluded to in the final section of Matthew's discourse (25:31)" (Verheyden 2005, 194). While it seems reasonable that both documents were influenced by some other material, Verheyden considers it less likely that the two documents were completely unconnected. The consistency of ideas used and even of their ordered arrangement suggests a more direct influence (Verheyden 2005, 195). Verheyden surveys a number of the arguments based on a literary relationship or the lack of a literary relationship. The root of the argument seems to be the level of certainty we can have as regards redactional process, which is a challenging analysis at best (Verheyden 2005, 196-200).
Verheyden considers that the Didache was composed/redacted with knowledge of Matthew's Gospel. For this reason, he analyzes the eschatological passage with an eye to the similar material in Matthew (Verheyden 2005, 201). Didache 16:1 and Matthew 24:3 both ask when the end will come and what the signs of the end will be. Matthew uses the question to start a lengthy discourse. The Didache clearly says, "you don't know the time" (Verheyden 2005, 202). The events are likewise presented in simple terms. Both the Didache and Matthew speak of a time of tribulation to come. Both predict times of persecution, apostasy, and betrayal in no uncertain terms (Verheyden 2005, 203). A deceiver will arise, causing great harm through supernatural powers (Verheyden 2005, 204). Verheyden observes specifically that these powers do not come from within the deceiver, but that he receives the powers from elsewhere. Some will be provoked to turn away from the Christian faith, while others will not (Verheyden 2005, 206). The concept of Christ being the one who is cursed but who saves is present in both texts. Verheyden specifically notes that a curse of death is found not only in Didache 16 but also in 1:3 and 5:1 (Verheyden 2005, 208). The Didache gives a threefold sign of the end, with a visual sign in the sky, a sound of a trumpet, and the resurrection of the dead (Verheyden 2005, 209). All the concepts are present in Matthew, though a specific sign of an opening in the sky is not clearly presented. The end is expected to be coming soon in both texts, which both serve as warning and as encouragement (Verheyden 2005, 212).
Verheyden concludes that Didache 16 effectively draws out the eschatological emphases of Matthew's Gospel (Verheyden 2005, 215). The wording and order of ideas show some evidence of influence. The Didache account is very brief, and it is likely that it is incomplete, with an abrupt end. The world of Matthew and the Didache, however, certainly seem to correspond to each other.