Tuilier, André. "Chapter Nine: Les charismatiques itinérants dans la Didachè et dans l'Évangile de Mattieu." in Van de Sandt, Huub (editor). Matthew and the Didache: Two Documents from the Same Jewish-Christian Milieu? Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2005, 157-169 (Abstract in English follows, pp. 171-172).
Tuilier considers the relative descriptions and attitudes toward charismatic itinerant prophets and other teachers in Matthew's Gospel and in the Didache as a means of understanding the context of their times and places (Tuilier 2005, 157). In the Didache, those recognized as apostles, prophets, and teachers are identified as genuine messengers of the Gospel. In some manner, these people are recognized, though the Didache doesn't tell us how (Tuilier 2005, 158). Yet the communities know them as servants of the Lord. The Didache is able to recognize and identify an apparently small number of false prophets and teachers as well. Those who are faithful are welcome, even to preside at the Eucharist and to pray as they wish (Tuilier 2005, 159). Alongside the charismatic visitors, the Didache community has resident elders and bishops, who have an apparently heirarchical structure (Tuilier 2005, 159-160).
In contrast to the Didache, Tuilier finds that Matthew's Gospel refers to prophets exclusively as characters in the Old Testament, with the exception of John the Baptist (Tuilier 2005, 160). To Matthew, Jesus is the prophet. Others, identified as false prophets, claim that Christ has appeared here or there, in order to deceive Jesus' followers (Tuilier 2005, 161). Only twelve apostles are identified, all chosen by Christ. These apostles do not act on their own initiative to spread the Gospel until after the resurrection. It is after the resurrection, with the selection of Matthias to replace Judas, and the later assertion of apostolic authority by Paul, that we begin to see a spreading of the apostolic office (Tuilier 2005, 162). Tuilier sees this spread in the later first century with Timothy, Titus, and Clement of Rome. Again, Matthew treats Jesus as the true teacher, though there are others referred to occasionally (Tuilier 2005, 163). Teachers other than Jesus are considered potentially dangerous, as proved to be the case later with the rise of Gnosticism. The monarchical episcopate does not appear to be suggested in Matthew. Local leaders are, however, potentially envisioned (Tuilier 2005, 164).
Though Tuillier would place composition of Matthew and the Didache at approximately the same time, he sees Matthew coming first. He also sees Matthew largely reflecting an earlier time period than the Didache. Matthew does suggest an ongoing charismatic work of apostles and possibly other leaders, in healing, casting out demons, and performing other miracles (Tuilier 2005, 165). This is consistent with the itinerant charismatics described in the Didache. Early Christianity rather quickly developed heirarchical models of leadership which would allow for ongoing governance of communities. This is reflected in the Didache as well as documents which came shortly afterward (Tuilier 2005, 166).
Tuillier takes the Didache and other early documents to have drawn on some sort of a document or oral tradition of sayings of Jesus, which may well have circulated in Aramaic (Tuilier 2005, 168-169). This material was not retained after the development of the canonical Gospels.