McDonnell, Kilian & Montague, George T. "Chapter Twelve: Cyril of Jerusalem: Apostolic Memories in the Very Theater of Salvation." Christian Initiation and Baptism in the Holy Spirit: Evidence from the First Eight Centuries. Collegeville, MN: The Liturgical Press, 1991, 158-173.
Cyril of Jerusalem (c. 15-387) is known for his 19 Catechetical Lectures and his five Mystagogical Catecheses, which were instrumental in Cyril's being declared a "Doctor of the Church" at a later time (McDonnell & Montague 1991, 158). McDonnell finds in these lectures ideas which shed light on Cyril's view of spiritual gifts and their relationship to baptism.
McDonnell observes that along with Jerusalem, both Alexandria and Antioch were considered important centers of Christianity. In Alexandria a system of readings associated with different occasions in the church year developed, a lectionary of which the usage spread to Jerusalem (McDonnell & Montague 1991, 160). Readings and liturgical rites tended to be preserved in Alexandria.
In the first few centuries of the Christian period Antioch was considered important as the place from which missionaries were sent (McDonnell & Montague 1991, 162). McDonnell also notes its importance from an imperial standpoint, as the residence of the emperor. Distinguished Greek bishops lived there, also making it an important center of liturgical thought (McDonnell & Montague 1991, 163). This led to a proliferation of Syrian liturgical writings, including baptismal rites, which were lacking in the ante-Nicene period. McDonnell considesr the Apostolic Constitutions, from about 380, to be of importance and to bear similarity to work of Cyril of Jerusalem (McDonnell & Montague 1991, 163). The church had recently endured a number of schisms. McDonnell sees the Apostolic Consitutions as, in part, an attempt at unification and reconciliation (McDonnell & Montague 1991, 164).
McDonnell considers the way Cyril uses the word charism, observing that Paul does not use the word in a consistent way (McDonnell & Montague 1991, 165). In some instances it refers to specific spiritual actions such as prophecy or healing, but at other times it may be applied to people filling ecclesiastical offices. Cyril tends to use the term to describe the miraculous but also acts such as chastity, wisdom, and administration (McDonnell & Montague 1991, 167). McDonnell further observes that Cyril often looks to Irenaeus as an example, taking a self-consciously ante-Nicene view of what is normative in Christianity. This may explain his hopen attitude toward the spriitual gifts even in a time when they were being abused (McDonnell & Montague 1991, 168).
According to McDonnell, Cyril was certainly aware of Irenaeus, though there is some question whether he knew him from his writings or through Eusebius, who was very likely present in Jerusalem at some times when Cyril was there (McDonnell & Montague 1991, 168). Cyril would certainly have known who Eusebius was, due to Eusebius' role in the dedication of the Holy Sepulcher and the various books he wrote (McDonnell & Montague 1991, 169). The concept of spiritual gifts as belonging to the work of the gospel could hardly have been missed. Both Irenaeus and Eusebius considered the gifts as a present reality (McDonnell & Montague 1991, 170). The broad acceptance of this point of view about spiritual gifts may have even led to a free spread of Montanism. If the gifts are expected to be used in the Church, the Montanists may not have seemed far out of line (McDonnell & Montague 1991, 171). Cyril, then, would be understood as encouraging catechumens in developing their Christian lives. McDonnell sees this as a normal pastoral attitude (McDonnell & Montague 1991, 172).