LaVerdiere, Eugene. "Chapter Eleven: The Food Called Eucharist: The Eucharist in the Writings of St. Justin." The Eucharist in the New Testament and the Early Church. Collegeville, Minnesota: The Liturgical Press (Pueblo), 1996, 167-184.
In LaVerdiere's conception, Christianity first developed an overall philosophy which interacted with the broader society at the time of Justin Martyr. Prior to that time, he sees the developments as primarily involving internal matters (LaVerdiere 1996, 167). At the time of Justin, among other things, the eucharist was described, explained, and defended to the external world (LaVerdiere 1996, 168).
Justin, born between 100 and 110, from Flavia Neapolis in Samaria, was trained in philosophy, becoming a confirmed Platonist before he converted to Christianity about 130 (LaVerdiere 1996, 168-169). He was in Rome by 150, teaching Christian philosophy using Platonic categories. His extant works are two Apoloties and the Dialogue with Trypho, all produced from 151-161 (LaVerdiere 1996, 170). His views on the eucharist are found in his First Apoloty and the Dialogue.
In Justin's First Apology chapters 65-67, he explains the eucharist. After the eucharist, associated with baptism, it is celebrated on the frist day of the week, the "Day of the Sun" (ch. 67) (LaVerdiere 1996, 172). In the assembly, the bread and cup are present, and the leader, referred to as "president" by Justin, makes prayers of thanksgiving, Trinitarian in nature, received by the congregation with the word "amen" (LaVerdiere 1996, 174). Those present then receive the bread and wine, and it is then taken to those who could not be present (LaVerdiere 1996, 175). Justin describes the washing of baptism as the food of the eucharist in terms of water, bread, and wine, which are specially powerful and significant. While Justin does not repeat the institution narrative in full, there are enough elements it seems fair to suggest he is giving a paraphrase of the more extensive liturgy in use (LaVerdiere 1996, 177). Justin's presentation clearly distinguishes the Christian eucharist from the Mithraic rituals including bread and a cup of water (LaVerdiere 1996, 178). He emphasizes the differences in detail. Justin further explains that the regular eucharist takes place on Sunday as the day on which God created the world and the day of resurrection (LaVerdiere 1996, 179).
Justin's Dialogue with Trypho, written after the Apologies tells of a two day discussion from some years earlier, about 132-135. It is presented as a literary dialogue in the style of Plato (LaVerdiere 1996, 179). There are four references to the eucharist (ch. 10, 41, 70, and 117). Justin rejects the idea of a Christian assembly which is disordered, as some would suggest (LaVerdiere 1996, 180). He describes Jesus as the Christ, eternal Son of God, made man, suffering, dying, and rising from the dead, ascending into heaven to rule over humans (LaVerdiere 1996, 181). Christ suffers as the Lamb of God. A different offering, that of fine flour, symbolizes the bread in the Eucharist. Justin recognizes the eucharist as Jesus' body and blood, and affirms that the rite is sacrificial in some way (LaVerdiere 1996, 182). Christians are the beneficiaries of all that Christ does in the eucharist.