Daniélou, Jean, S.J. "Chapter Nine: The Figures of the Eucharist." The Bible and the Liturgy." Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1956, pp. 142-161.
Daniélou begins his discussion of figures of the Eucharist with a description of the prayer of thanksgiving at the start of the consecration (Daniélou 1956, 142). The text of Apostolic Constitutions book eight describes it in detail. Daniélou notes that only some parts of it remain to this day in the preface of the consecration.
The prayer of consecration, because it makes reference to Old and New Testament figures, suggests we look at the Old Testament for foreshadowing of the Sacrament (Daniélou 1956, 143). Daniélou finds four particularly important episodes: "the sacrifice of Melchisedech, the manna of Exodus, the meal of the Covenant, the Paschal meal" (Daniélou 1956, 143).
The offering of bread and wine by Melchisedech, who is already easily taken as a type of Christ, has long been taken as significant of the eucharist (Daniélou 1956), 143). This is likely an intentional move by Jesus in selecting bread and wine for the purpose, as well as an application made as early as the letter to the Hebrews (Daniélou 1956, 145). The New Testament certainly ties Jesus and Melchizedek together, showing him as the one greater than Abraham. Eusebius also particularly ties the New Testament to the Hebrew sacrificial system (Daniélou 1956, 146).
Daniélou also points to the Exodus account of manna in the wilderness as a symbol of the eucharist (Daniélou 1956, 147). Some Fathers also consider the giving of water from the rock of Horeb to be related to communion. The manna is a figure which is relatively easy to grasp. The water is a miraculous drink which came to Israel from the rock which was considered to be Christ (Daniélou 1956, 148). Daniélou illustrates these connections at some length.
A third suggestion of the Eucharist is found in a covenant meal, found in Jewish temple liturgy, expressing union with God and participation in the covenant people of God (Daniélou 1956, 153). This meal of fellowshipo, according to Daniélou, represented the typical Jewish understanding of the many Old Testament restoration narratives. He illustrates it from numerous canonical and non-canonical passages. The meals of Christ recorded in the Gospels have regularly been understood as a fulfillment of these Old Testament prophecies (Daniélou 1956, 155). The eschatoloigical banquet may also be seen as the means of Gentiles entering the kingdom of God. Daniélou observes the relatively universalistic nature of the banquet descriptions from the Gospels (Daniélou 1956, 157).