Augustine. Exposition on the Book of Psalms. Schaff, Philip (editor). New York: Christian Literature Publishing Co, 1886. Nicene and Post-Nicene Church Fathers: Series 1: Volume VIII. Re-published 2014, Catholic Way Publishing. Kindle electronic edition, ISBN-13: 978-1-78379-372-3.
Augustine sees Psalm 107 as a sweet recount of God's mercy. It opens with an Alleluia, which is the Christian's response every day to God's mercy (Augustine Psalms, loc. 336828, par. 1). Verse one calls the worshiper to confess that God is sweet in his mercy. Augustine affirms that it is only the person who knows God personally who can recognize his sweetness (Augustine Psalms, loc. 337940, par. 2). They, according to verse two, have been redeemed by God. These people have been gathered from many lands. Augustine contrasts this with a calling out of Egypt. These are those gathered by Christ from every nation (Augustine Psalms, loc. 337950, par. 3).
Verses 4-5 describe a wandering without God, a time of suffering (Augustine Psalms, loc. 337950, par. 4). When the people cried out to God, he led them out of their place of suffering (vv.6-7). This is God's mercy and his love, as he satisfies those in need (vv. 8-9) (Augustine Psalms, loc. 337960, par. 4).
The wandering of those people, as shown in verses 10-12, was of their own doing. They had pursued their pride and wisdom, but it led them to distress (v. 13) (Augustine Psalms, loc. 337965, par. 5). Yet Augustine notes God is able to break all the bondage his people face (vv. 14-17).
The people of God had previously suffered hunger, but in verse 18 they are filled with food, so much so that Augustine considers it could kill them (Augustine Psalms, loc. 337975, par. 6). God is even able to rescue his people from that trouble. This all calls God's people to give him thanks and praise.
Verse 23 shifts the topic by speaking of those who do business on water (Augustine Psalms, loc. 337985, par. 7). Augustine takes the water as a sign of the turbulent places of our human relationships. In these also God can bring peace (v. 25). Despite the failure of human wisdom and counsel, God can rescue his people. By verse 30, God brings the troubled people safely into port (Augustine Psalms, loc. 338000, par. 7). In all this, Augustine sees God at work to resist the proud and give grace to the humble (Augustine Psalms, loc. 338010, par. 8). Augustine further seems to see the substitutionary work of Christ as central to all the moves in the Psalm to change one status into another.
God's people still suffer from weakness and loss. Augustine sees this in action in verse 39, which he ties to the departure of the faithful in 1 John (Augustine Psalms, loc. 338026, par. 9). As people love themselves they have less interest in trusting God. Their unity breaks down and they find grief (Augustine Psalms, loc. 338031, par. 9). In the end, Augustine sees verses 40-41 as God's work to humble the proud and exalt the humble. Finally, wickedness will be silenced (v. 42).
The wise consider the things of God. Verse 43 sees the wise understanding God's mercy. He restores those who are weary (Augustine Psalms, loc. 338045, par. 10).