Senn, Frank C. "Chapter Eleven: The Spectrum of Reformations." Christian Liturgy: Catholic and Evangelical. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1997, 357-392.
Senn observes that the Lutheran reformation was one among many, and not the first (Senn 1997, 357). The Church has had many reform movements at different times in history. In this chapter, Senn reviews the different reform movements near the time of the Lutheran Reformation, describing a number of them.
The Moravians were strongly congregational and practiced infant baptism, only sometimes rebaptizing converts. Their liturgy emphasized congregational singing (Senn 1997, 358).
Anabaptist movements were less cohesive and more difficult to document. Senn understands there to be a rejection of Anabaptists, accompanied by attempts to exterminate them, spurred on by the radical revolutionary stances of some leaders (Senn 1997, 359). While the movement was not very unified, they did agree in rejecting infant baptism, in viewing communion in a non-sacramental way, and in encouraging holy living and self-sacrificial acts (Senn 1997, 360).
The "Reformed" camp, as exemplified by Zwingli, was radical in comparison to Luther's reformation, but not nearly as radical as the Anabaptists would desire. Much ceremony was removed, communion was endorsed less frequently by some, and a table was used rather than an altar (Senn 1997, 362). The intent of Reformed leaders was to repristinate the ceremonies, making them consistent with what they believed was New Testament practice (Senn 1997, 363). In various places, the liturgical adjustments were carried on differently, especially as regards communion. Senn identifies various moves to escape a sacramental view of communion, including separating the consecrating from the eating and drinking so it would serve only as an explanation (Senn 1997, 365). While preaching in Lutheran and Reformed circles tended toward exposition, Lutherans were more likely to follow a lectionary, while the Reformed would practice lectio continua. Senn also observes that the Reformed were more interested in newly composed prayers and extemporaneous prayers (Senn 1997, 367). Some movements removed the use of instruments, while others did not. Calvin was particularly interested in singing from a metrical Psalter (Senn 1997, 368). A communal view of liturgy grew up, in which church discipline, ordination, and weddings were considered part of the work of the congregation (Senn 1997, 369).
The Reformation in England had some different characteristics than the movements on the Continent (Senn 1997, 370). In general, Senn considers the English people to have been more satisfied with the customs within the Church. However, books from the Lutheran Reformation gained considerable traction in England. After Henry VIII died in 1547, his successor, Edward VI, increased the pace of reforms (Senn 1997, 371). Scripture readings and some prayers were presented in English, and there were efforts to unify the nation around a standardized liturgy. The resultant publication of the authorized Book of Common Prayer in 1549 represented a move to conduct a distinctively English liturgy (Senn 1997, 372). Senn traces the origins of the various parts of the liturgy to a variety of German Reformation sources. He also notes that Cranmer's work effectively synthesized Roman and Reformational liturgy (Senn 1997, 374). The controversy inherent in imposing an English liturgy throughout England caused considerable civil and ecclesial strife (Senn 1997, 375). A second edition of the Book of Common Prayer shows more differentiation from the Roman liturgy. Senn describes these liturgical changes in some detail (Senn 1997, 376ff). Specifically, the liturgy of communion moved farther from any possible understanding of transubstantiation or adoration of the elements. The reforms were halted in 1553 with the death of Edward VI and the accession of Mary Tudor, a Roman Catholic (Senn 1997, 380). The Book of Common Prayer was revised in 1558, with the accession of Elizabeth I (Senn 1997, 381).
Senn discusses the work of the Humanist Reformation in some detail (Senn 1997, 381ff). This reform movement attempted to work reconciliation among the various parties, particularly Rome and the different branches of the Reformation. The work of Erasmus as well as Georg Witzel was instrumental in the attempt to find common ground in the ancient church.
The Roman church also had a reform movement, mostly allied with humanistic ideals, before the Council of Trent (Senn 1997, 383). Senn particularly comments on the work of Johann Gropper and Gaspar Contarini. Gropper and Contarini argued for a return to biblical primacy as opposed to extensive reliance on medieval legends, as well as for a more limited authority of the pope (Senn 1997, 384). While Gropper and Contarini represented a relatively conciliatory stance, the work of the Council of Trent, convened between 1545 and 1563, was less so, insisting on a unified liturgy, missal, and breviary (Senn 1997, 385). Though abuses of the Mass were taken up in 1562, they were not addressed in extensive detail (Senn 1997, 386). Sen observes that the liturgical reforms, reflecting Roman practice, led to the clear emergence of a "Roman" Catholicism (Senn 1997, 388).
As a response to the Council of Trent, Senn describes the work of Martin Chemnitz, who wrote an extensive examination of the Council of Trent (Senn 1997, 388ff). Chemnitz evaluated the canons and the decrees of the Council, comparing them to both Scripture and tradition. Among other elements, Chemnitz identified eight different uses of traditio in theology. Based on this articulation, he concluded that the Council of Trent had confused the senses in which the word was used (Senn 1997, 389).