Gibbs, Jeffrey A. “Matthew 6:5-15: Prayer." Matthew 1:1-11:1. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 2006, pp. 314-347.
Gibbs observes a switching between second person singular and plural throughout Matthew 6:1-7:6. He theorizes that it may have been a purposeful way to make it clear that Jesus' teaching is for each disciple and for all disciples (Gibbs 2006, 314).
The word regularly translated as "daily" in Matthew 6:11 is not known in Greek literature prior to 6:11 and Luke 11:3. Gibbs traces the etymology briefly and concludes the word may have implications about a time drawing near, such as, "for the next day" (Gibbs 2006, 316).
Gibbs notes that Jesus' teaching on prayer in Matthew 6:5-6 points, first and foremost, to the need for prayer to be addressed to God, without intent to impress other people. It is simple and direct, well done in private, with God alone as the witness (Gibbs 2006, 319).
The prayer of Matthew 6:9-13, normally called "the Lord's prayer" or the "Our Father" is foundational in Christian piety. Gibbs observes that Jesus' words "pray indeed like this" in 6:9 show the prayer as a guide for our prayers (Gibbs 2006, 320-321). He makes rather extended comments on this prayer.
The introduction of the Lord's Prayer addresses God as "our Father." Gibbs sees this as an indicator that Christians understand themselves as part of a plurality, and that the relationship to God is that of a father and children (Gibbs 2006, 322).
The first three petitions of the Lord's Prayer are parallel in meaning and form (Gibbs 2006, 324). They lead together to the end of Matthew 6:10. Here the prayer is that all these things - the name being hallowed, the kingdom coming, and the will being done - should be here on earth as well as in heaven (Gibbs 2006, 325). Gibbs finds this to speak agains the often overly introspective ideas that Christianity is "just for me." We pray God would work in the whole world (Gibbs 2006, 326). Gibbs goes on to make specific comments about each of the petitions. Each of the first three petitions are that God would accomplish what is already true about himself. The application to the world is not complete, but does go on all the time. In the end, God's name will be known as holy, his realm will be established, and his will accomplished beyond question.
Gibbs finds Matthew 6:11-13 to have a structural unity separate from verses 9-10. For this reason he considers this a separate division of the prayer (Gibbs 2006, 330). The first person plural pronouns are used. The petitions are addressed in the second person rather than the third person imperatives used for the first three petitions (Gibbs 2006, 331).
In Matthew 6:11, the petition that God would supply our bread contains a challenging word, normally translated as "daily." Gibbs notes that the word does not appear except in Matthew 6:11, Luke 11:3, and texts which are influenced by those verses (Gibbs 2006, 331). The word appears to be a relative of a verb meaning "to come near." Interpreters are divided about whether the word is to be taken eschatologically or not. In other words, while some consider the passage a plea for the provision at the end of the world to come, others simply see it as a call for daily needs (Gibbs 2006, 332). Gibbs considers it to be the latter, largely due to the shift of emphasis after the first three petitions (Gibbs 2006, 334).
The fifth petition, asking that God would forgive our sins, would be a potential source of fear. However, the use of a perfect tense verb, "we forgave," suggests that Christians, who would pray this prayer, are people who have already forgiven others. They can have a confidence that God forgives them as well (Gibbs 2006, 335). Gibbs is clear that humans may need to forgive many times as hard feelings about past wrongs arise. The difference between finding forgiveness difficult and being unwilling to forgive is significant. The Christian who is willing to forgive shows God's forgiveness (Gibbs 2006, 336).
Speaking of Matthew 6:13, the sixth petition of the Lord's Prayer, Gibbs suggests that most commentators avoid speaking about what "lead us not into temptation" might mean (Gibbs 2006, 337). The word "temptation" is always used negatively in Matthew, never simply implying a test of faithfulenss (Gibbs 2006, 338). The verb for leading does not seem to be used to say"do not allow us to be brought into temptation." Gibbs concludes that the petition asks God not to tempt us to evil (Gibbs 2006, 339).
A related question is whether the sixth and seventh petitions should be read as one, as Luther does (Gibbs 2006, 339). The structure of the passage could suggest this, as there is no "and" before the "deliver us from evil." If that is the case, we see a very common form of petition, found many times in Scripture. We ask that a negative should not happen but tha the positive should (Gibbs 2006, 340). Gibbs illustrates this as a very common structure.
The Christian life does have trials and temptations. Gibbs acknowledges this. Yet he says the Christian, praying as taught by the Lord, endures those temptations (Gibbs 2006, 344). Gibbs closes this section of his commentary with an exhortation to teach and pray this prayer carefully and faithfully.