Daly, Robert J. "Part 2: From the Old Testament to the New. Chapter Seven: The New Testament." Christian Sacrifice: The Judaeo-Christian Background Before Origen. Washington, D.C.: The Catholic University of America Press, 1978, 208-307.
Daly considers the New Testament to have relatively little interest in the sacrificial concepts of the Old Testament (Daly 1978, 208). Despite the lack of systematic teaching on sacrifice, however, there are many references to sacrifice.
The infancy narratives, found in Matthew and Luke, use language common in sacrificial contexts. This suggests a connection in the minds of the evangelists (Daly sees it as community development) between Jesus and sacrifice (Daly 1978, 210).
Daly spends a good bit of time discussing the sacrificial idea in the teachings of Jesus (Daly 1978, 210ff). One central concept is the great importance of reconciliation, which is of enough value it should interrupt the making of sacrifice. Forgiveness also is of great importance to Jesus (Daly 1978, 211). Yet in Mark 1:44 and other similar passages Jesus affirms the importance of sacrifice, having people consult with priests in accord with the Law (Daly 1978, 212). Jesus' compliance with Judaism is not unqualified. In Matthew 12 Jesus defends his disciples' violation of the Sabbath. His claim, which Daly considers "startling" is that he is greater than the temple or the Sabbath (Daly 1978, 213).
Daly finds in Jesus' cleansing of the temple an attitude that "the temple was more a place of prayer and preaching than of sacrifice" (Daly 1978, 214). Jesus, in his trial, is accused of saying he would tear down the temple and build it again in three days. He again here indicates that he is greater than the temple. Further, in the parable of the Samaritan the priest and Levite who choose not to help the victim are considered inferior to the Samaritan who shows mercy (Daly 1978, 215).
Daly also finds Jesus' language of the rejection of the Son in Mark 12 and the concept of Jesus as a ransom in Mark 12 to be consistent with the late Judaic idea of the community as the body of sacrifice and atonement (Daly 1978, 216-217).
The accounts of the Last Supper and of the Passion are, by nature, accounts of sacrifice which tie Jesus' death to the Passover (Daly 1978, 219). The Gospels clearly place Jesus' death in conjunction with Passover. The terminology used of the cup in the Last Supper strikes Daly as corresponding to sacrificial blood language, particularly in Exodus 24:4-89. This ties it directly to an atoning sacrifice for forgiveness (Daly 1978, 221). Daly sees it as also tied to the theme in late Judaism as a person or community becoming a suffering servant who atones for sin (Daly 1978, 222-223).
The Book of Acts discusses the concept of sacrifice through the themes of the suffering servant and the temple. Daly finds the suffering servant in Philip's discussion with the Ethiopian eunuch in Acts 8:26-40 (Daly 1978, 226). Here Christ is the fulfillment of Isaiah's suffering servant. The temple in Acts is portrayed in both a positive and negative way. It remains a place of prayer and of healing. Yet it also symbolizes that which has become obsolete in Jesus (Daly 1978, 227).
Daly finds in Paul "a rather full theology of Christian sacrifice" (Daly 1978, 230). In this section Daly also discusses the portions of the New Testament he considers contested, as well as James and 1 Peter. Paul's language of κοινωνία is reminiscent of the Old Testament priests sharing in the offerings made. His teaching of Christian leaders being provided for is also easily associated with an Old Testament view of the priesthood (Daly 1978, 231).
In Daly's estimation, Paul considers Christians collectively to function as a new version of the temple (Daly 1978, 233). This is akin to the late Jewish idea of the community as the spiritual unit of sacrifice and forgiveness. Secondly, Daly finds in Paul the concept of Christ as the particular sacrifice (Daly 1978, 236). He is presented in numerous texts not only as a sacrifice but specifically as a sin offering. Daly provides a brief exegesis of numerous passages in which Jesus is cast as an atoning sacrifice for our sins. Finally, Daly sees in Paul examples of the death of faithful Christians being compared to the death of Jesus. The Christians who die are, in some way, seen as serving as a sacrifice for sin alongside Jesus (Daly 1978, 240). Daly finds a vivid association between the Christian life and laying down one's life for Jesus. He comments in some detail, though inconclusively, on the start of Romrnas 12 (Daly 1978, 243ff). The life of self-sacrifice becomes a pleasing offering to God, enabling the Christian to live a holy life before the Lord. Daly finds similar concepts in Romans 15:15ff (Daly 1978, 246), as well as in 2 Corinthians 2:14-17 (Daly 1978, 249).
Departing from Paul, Daly considers 1 Peter 2:1-10 as "the most comprehensive of all NT texts on the theology of sacrifice, for it contains important direct witness to . . . the idea of the Christian community as the new temple and the sacrificial nature of Christian life" (Daly 1978, 250). The sacrificial nature of Christ's death is Peter's underlying presupposition. The text goes on to indicate that the Christian gives himself over to God as a living sacrifice, similarly to the concept in Romans 12:1 (Daly 1978, 253).
Daly has previously mentioned the Qumran community's view that the community as a whole functions as the temple for purposes of sacrifice. Here he continues the thought by articulating an eraly Christian view of the gathered church serving to replace the work of the temple (Daly 1978, 256ff). This thought is most clear in Paul, in Hebrews, and in John. Daly analyzes this theme in a number of passages in turn. Particularly in Hebrews, Daly finds the tempe as replaced by Christ and his sacrifice (Daly 1978, 264). The entire old covenant has been replaced by Christ. He functions not only as the sacrifice but also as the high priest, who makes offering for his people (Daly 1978, 268). Daly describes the work of a high priest and how his work is similar to that of Jesus in some detail.
In Hebrews, not only is Christ the sacrifice, but in some ways Daly finds the Christian, laying down his life for Christ, to be envisioned as a sacrifice (Daly 1978, 273). Jesus remains the high priest, placed over a priesthood which extends to all Christians, who serve as a spiritual sacrifice. Daly unpacks these ideas in turn (Daly 1978, 274ff). Daly concludes that Hebrews is in firm agreement with Paul about sacrifice (Daly 1978, 285).
Daly continues by evaluating sacrificial language in John's Gospel and in 1 John (Daly 1978, 286ff). From the outset, John's Gospel describes Jesus as the temple dwelling with us. This theme recurs many times. Daly also finds an element of the inner, spiritual life as of high importance. This is a feature he has already discussed as important in Qumran and in other parts of the New Testament (Daly 1978, 289). At the same time, John describes the actual atonement for cleansing as performed by Jesus' blood. The Christian's inner life does not accomplish atonement, but does appropriate it (Daly 1978, 293).
Daly finally observes that in Revelation the same sort of themes can be found - Chrsit the new temple and sacrifice is especially prominent (Daly 1978, 295). The image of God on his throne is central to the visions. The goal of the Christian is to be with God, before his throne (Daly 1978, 297). On the throne, Jesus is described as the lamb, shedding his blood to make atonement for his people. Daly sees this as clearly sacrificial language (Daly 1978, 298). In the presence of God there is also an altar. Daly does not consider this to be an altar of sacrifice. Rather, it is more like the altar of incense, where prayers ascent (Daly 1978, 302). In this place, the redeemed serve as a priesthood before God. Everyone present at God's throne is considered a priest and is engaged in the priestly role of making prayers and worship before God (Daly 1978, 304).