McDonnell, Kilian & Montague, George T. "Chapter Six: Charisms and Community: Spirit-Baptism and the Building of the Church." Christian Initiation and Baptism in the Holy Spirit: Evidence from the First Eight Centuries. Collegeville, MN: The Liturgical Press, 1991, 63-75.
Montague considers it clear but neglected that baptism in the Holy Spirit, though, according especially to Luke and Paul, given at water baptism, still continues through the life of the Christian, serving to strengthen the community (McDonnell & Montague 1991, 63). This is also the case expressed at times in Mark. Matthew's view still aims at a special prophetic gift for some, while John has a more mystical picture of a sacramental life. Montague certainly sees an active and ongoing role of the Holy Spirit in the life of the Christian.
Montague finds that after the resurrection the work of the Holy Spirit is targeted at building up the Church, particularly through building a communal life (McDonnell & Montague 1991, 64). While Luke rarely uses the term koinonia to describe communal life, preferring ecclesia, Paul regularly uses the term koinonia to describe the communal nature of the church (McDonnell & Montague 1991, 65).
Montague considers Paul's emphasis on spiritual gifts and their necessity to be very clear. He refers to 1 Thessalonians 5:19-20, Galatians 3:2-5, and to the many references in 1 Corinthians and Romans 12 (McDonnell & Montague 1991, 67). The conclusion is that the early Christians expected gifts of the Holy Spirit to be exercised broadly and visibly. While it was assumed that all Christians would have gifts, they would still pray for other gifts which fit their changing situations. There was also an expectation that at times God would deliver gifts through an imposition of hands (McDonnell & Montague 1991, 69).
Ephesians (which Montague does not consider Pauline) portrays spiritual gifts as a means to build the body of Christ (McDonnell & Montague 1991, 70). Chapter four, verses 1-16, could potentially be understood as liturgical in nature, with allusions to baptism as well as to Psalm 68, which was traditionally used in Judaism at Pentecost, a common day for Christian baptism (McDonnell & Montague 1991, 70). Ephesians four certainly moves relatively seamlessly from baptism to gifts of the Holy Spirit. The gifts are poured out by Christ, a factor which Montague considers strongly Lukan in its understanding (McDonnell & Montague 1991, 71). The gifts differ from person to person, but they are distributed according to Christ's will. The overall work of the Holy Spirit and those who receive his gifts is that of building up the body of Christ (McDonnell & Montague 1991, 75). Though the gifts are present from the start of the Christian life, they bear fruit over time.