Pardee, Nancy. "Chapter Two: A Text-Linguistic Analysis of the Didache." The Genre and Development of the Didache. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2012, 65-140.
Pardee observes that text linguistics has a counterpart in American scholarship, called discourse analysis. The field "essentially refers to the application of linguistic concepts and methodologies to the text as an act of communication. Originally, linguistics dealt with the smaller units of language and communication, using descriptive or structural approaches." (Pardee 2012, 65, emphasis hers). The discipline she describes approaches the communicative event of the text on a larger scale. The text is taken as a coherent whole, which makes sense by itself and may also make recognizable references to ideas in other texts (Pardee 2012, 67). An important goal of the discipline is to treat a whole text as it is present to us.
After describing several of the syntactic tools used to identify divisions of a text into its components, Pardee questions whether the methodology can be applied to various types of communicative texts. Her conclusion is that it can be applied in a wide variety of situations (Pardee 2012, 73).
Pardee moves on to identify the text she will use for analysis (Pardee 2012, 74ff). While she largely uses the Jerusalem manuscript of the Didache, her analysis is informed by additional fragmentary evidence, including partial manuscripts, citations in church orders, and other Two Ways texts.
Pardee observes that a challenge in study of the Didache is the scholarship which has largely posited multiple layers of redaction (Pardee 2012, 79). Text-linguistic analysis evaluates the evidence of possible redaction based on the surface inconsistencies, as well as other elements of the communication as we now have it, seeking a means of clarifying the resultant text.
Pardee proceeds to describe her evaluation of manuscript and punctuation conventions (Pardee 2012, 80-82), then to provide a brief glossary of analytical terms she will use (Pardee 2012, 83). She then presents the Greek text on left-hand pages, with some notes on the text as used in the communication event. The right-hand pages have indicators of the semantic flow of the analyzed text (Pardee 2012, 84-96). The notes at the bottom of the pages closely delineate the semantic impression to be made by each statement.
Of more immediate use to the average reader, Pardee proceeds with a more detailed description of the communication levels of the various passages from the Didache (Pardee 2012, 97ff). Here she indicates in detail who communicates to whom and how the message functions.
Pardee considers the titles stated on the Didache as an important preparatory note, drawing attention to the intent of the document (Pardee 2012, 101). The nature of the double title, with its repetition, indicates not merely an elaboration but some other process (Pardee 2012, 102). After a survey of commentators, Pardee concludes that many commentaries discount the importance of the two separate lines, and that it is inappropriate to do so (Pardee 2012, 104). Because written titles tend to be amplified, it would seem likely that the second title would be an editorial comment, but the reference to "the Lord" would not be easily removed. She therefore concludes that the longer title is original. Pardee reviews references in patristic authors, finding that the work may be referred to by its shorter title (Pardee 2012, 108). Uses of a form of the longer title tend to omit the number "twelve," which may suggest it was a later elaboration or that it was present but not considered integral (Pardee 2012, 1090. It is significant, in Pardee's mind, that some other versions of Two Ways narratives include the word διδαχή in their titles (doctrina in Latin) (Pardee 2012, .These instances may suggest the shorter title as the norm. Yet, Pardee recognizes that the longer title could serve as a title for the entire work, not just the Two Ways passages (Pardee 2012, 116). A consideration of title conventions in antiquity suggests to Pardee that the shorter title would serve as a brief label, and the longer one would preserve identity of one of a number of related works (Pardee 2012, 118). Pardee notes that in some Jewish and Chrsitian texts it was common practice to have a brief title label followed by a longer title sentence (Pardee 2012, 119).
Pardee further considers the function of the longer title in terms of what it refers to, what the semantics of the words are, and what it communicates to readers (Pardee 2012, 123). The external references are to the Lord, the Twelve, and Gentiles (Pardee 2012, 124). This makes a claim to the authority of the message, as well as the appropriate mediation of it through the Twelve. From the perspective of the semantics of the words, Pardee notes an apparent move from orality to writing, intending to bring oral teaching to Gentile readers or hearers (Pardee 2012, 124). The pragmatic aspect, what the title communicates to readers, is the authorization of the message and the importance of receiving the message (Pardee 2012, 125).
Pardee expands her analysis of the Didache, noting that the text has two parts, one beginning at 1:1 and the other beginning at 16:1 (Pardee 2012, 125). These represent her primary level thematic divisions. Pardee additionally posits another layer of significance at the points where "teaching" or "gospel" are mentioned (Pardee 2012, 127-128). Her argument for the various levels and their type of communication is complicated and depends in detail on the systematic definitions and abbreviations found on p. 83.
Though the Lord's Prayer as used in the Didache and in Matthew's Gospel are virtually identical, numerous other connections are not so clear, and are certainly not extended in nature (Pardee 2012, 130-132). Pardee does not think text-linguistic methods can confirm dependence on sources, but may shed light on compositional and redactional stages (Pardee 2012, 132).