Senn, Frank C. "Chapter Five: The Franco-Roman Liturgy." Christian Liturgy: Catholic and Evangelical. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1997, 173-210.
Senn now moves to developments in liturgy specific to the Western church and related to times into the Middle Ages (Senn 1997, 173). During this time, Rome as a unified Empire became subject to social, ethnic, and cultural incursions from various people groups, many of whom followed an Arian version of Christianity (Senn 1997, 174).
Senn observes that "the Carolingian renaissance was, to a great extent, a liturgical renaissance" (Senn 1997, 176). Importation, copying, and publishing of books of liturgy from Rome was carried on apace. Among these books, Senn describes sacramentaries with eucharistic liturgy, lectionaries with scripture readings, antiphonaries with music for the sung parts of a service, and ordines, with liturgical rubrics (Senn 1997, 176-177). Senn describes various works and their contents in some detail (Senn 1997, 177ff).
The period of late antiquity and the early Middle Ages also saw developments in church buildings, especially in and around Rome (Senn 1997, 182). There were basilicas at various locations in the city. Additionally, Senn identifies properties called tituli, titled to the church and cared for by presbyters. There were diaconal facilities which managed charity, and, on the borders of the city, were cemetery churches. All served different purposes. The type and functions of churches spread from Rome to other cities over time, also gradually adjusting their function depending on the need of the region (Senn 1997, 183).
The mass as celebrated by the bishop of Rome is seen as an archetype for station masses. Senn describes in detail the liturgy as known from the late seventh century (Senn 1997, 184ff). The liturgy tended to continue in its development in Frankish territory, where Senn observes it was adapted to the local cultures (Senn 1997, 186).
Senn describes some liturgical development, including specific elements of processions and special services related to the period around Easter, as developing in France or England and later moving to Rome (Senn 1997, 187ff). The growth of festivals was accompanied by a proliferation of saints' days and a desire of churches to obtain relics of martyrs (Senn 1997, 190ff).
In contrast to the liturgical developments cited earlier, Senn describes the unified view of baptism as disintegrating during the same period (Senn 1997, 192). Particularly in the West there was dispute about the efficacy of baptism, and therefore about its applicability to infants. There was a subsequent development of a longer period of time between baptism and confirmation (Senn 1997, 194). These grew from the visit of a bishop to confirm the validity of a baptism performed by a presbyter or a deacon.
Systems of penance developed considerably during the period, with severe requirements which may well have discouraged penitence (Senn 1997, 195). In response, Senn describes an increase in informal private confession, which spread especially in Britain and Ireland (Senn 1997, 196).
Forms of the daily prayer offices differed from one church or monastery to another (Senn 1997, 197). Though they normally fell into recognizable forms, with singing, Scriptures, and prayers, the forms were specific to individual locations. Senn describes a number of liturgies in different regions. He then describes the forms of daily life and prayer offices in Cassian's monastic writings (Senn 1997, 198-201). Senn notes that Cassian's forms are paradigmatic for Western Christianity as a whole.
Singing or chanting of Christian liturgy was a traditional practice of the Church. Senn describes the development of chant and hymnody in the Church, particularly as customs were traded between France and Rome (Senn 1997, 206ff).