Schaff, Philip. History of the Christian Church (The Complete Eight Volumes in One). Amazon Kindle Edition, 2014.
Volume 2, Ante-Nicene Christianity A.D. 100-325, “Chapter 5. Christian Worship” (Includes an introduction and sections 59-74).
§62. The Paschal Controversies.
The second century saw several controversies regarding the Christian observance of passover. Schaff provides a more detailed bibliography of this than of many topics. He describes the disputes and complicated and violent (Schaff 2014, Loc. 14914). While dogmatic issues may not have been of primary importance, the overall view of dependence of Christianity on Judaism is a very significant issue. While some Christians recognized Passover on 14 Nisan due to the date of the Passover before Jesus’ resurrection, not all Christians recognized the celebration to be tied to that particular calendar date (Schaff 2014, Loc. 14926). Others always observed the Passover on the Friday in the week of the full moon in March (Schaff 2014, Loc. 14932).
Polycarp engaged with Anicetus of Rome about this issue sometime between 150 and 155. The matter was not resolved but the bishops remained at peace (Schaff 2014, Loc. 14953). The dispute arose again about 170 in Laodicea. Several works were written, but are preserved only in fragments (Schaff 2014, Loc. 14966). Between 190 and 194 there was a more forceful controversy over the same matter (Schaff 2014, Loc. 14986). The bishop of Rome ordered churches in Asia to give up their practice of recognizing 14 Nisan. The bishop of Ephesus responded with a strongly worded letter defending their practice. Irenaeus responded with attempts to make peace among the different factions (Schaff 2014, Loc. 15012). By the early 4th century the Roman practice became better established. The quartadeciman movement largely died away by the 6th century (Schaff 2014, Loc. 15019). The controversy arose again in the guise of differences between the Gregorian and Julian calendars. It remains largely unsettled.