Osborne, Grant R. Revelation. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2002. Location: Ellis BS 2825.53.O73 2002
“IV. Final Judgment at the Arrival of the Eschaton (17:1-20:15)” pp. 603-725.
“D. Great White Throne Judgment (20:11-15)” pp. 719-725.
The judgment found in Revelation 20:11-15 is agreed to be at the end of history as we know it. Osborne finds a “large white throne” as a symbol of something with great majesty, power, and purity (Osborne 2002, 720). In this scene, the current age comes to a close, so eternity can be ushered in. The first heaven and earth will need to pass away. In verse 12, those standing before God’s throne are judged. Osborne takes these to be the saved, as we see saints standing there in other passages. It is after verse 12 that the other dead are raised (Osborne 2002, 721). The judgment according to things written in books is a common theme in the Old Testament and other Jewish writings. Believers are judged “according to their works” in various New Testament passages as well, but Osborne concedes that we do not know what that judgment might be (Osborne 2002, 722).
Revelation 20:13-15 records a resurrection of the dead, given up by “the sea.” Osborne considers the sea as a personification of death and Hades. He also notes that in the apparent chronology of Revelation the sea has already been destroyed, yet it does give up its dead to face judgment. The unrighteous are judged and “the evil forces join the false trinity in the lake of fire” (Osborne 2002, 723). This second death is depicted as eternal and conscious punishment. It is applied to all whose names are not in the book of life, which is the apparent consequence of their disobedience and unbelief (Osborne 2002, 724).