Aristotle, and W. Rhys Roberts. Rhetoric. Mineola, NY: Dover, 2004. Kindle Electronic Edition.
Book III, chapter 11.
Aristotle discusses use of metaphor to create vivid descriptions. He continues in III.11 to illustrate how particularly lifelike words or phrases add force to the metaphors, citing Homeric passages (Aristotle III.11, B. 1411b). Homer often gives inanimate objects a lifelike will or desire. One reason the metaphor is effective is that the language may surprise the reader or hearer (Aristotle III.11, B. 1412b). This may be done through unexpected language or through use of homophones, which may result in a surprise (Aristotle III.11, B. 1412b). Aristotle further suggests that similes and proverbs are metaphors which have been rearranged slightly (Aristotle III.11, B. 1413a).