Osborne, Grant R. Revelation. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2002. Location: Ellis BS 2825.53.O73 2002
III. God in Majesty and Judgment (4:1-16:21) pp. 218-602.
- God’s Sovereignty in Judgment (4:1-11:19) pp. 219-450.
Osborne observes that the three groups of judgments; seals, trumpets, and bowls, appear superficially similar, the seals are preliminary while the trumpets and bowls are more clearly related to one another. The trumpets have a special relationship to judgments on idolatry (Osborne 2002, 339). There are significant parallels between the trumpets and the plagues of Egypt from Exodus. Osborne notes an intensification of the judgments by steps from Exodus to the trumpets to the bowls (Osborne 2002, 340).
- “Introduction to Trumpet Judgments (8:2-6)” pp. 341-348.
In Revelation 8:5, God hears the prayers of the saints and responds (Osborne 2002, 346). The angel takes the censer and fills it with fire, which will now be used to execute God’s judgment in response to the prayers of his people. The angel throws fire upon the earth, with thunder and lightning (Osborne 2002, 347). The angels with the trumpets prepare to sound them, one at a time, each bringing a different judgment from God (Osborne 2002, 348).