Schaff, Philip. History of the Christian Church (The Complete Eight Volumes in One). Amazon Kindle Edition, 2014.
Volume 1, Ch. 11, “Theology of the Apostolic Church.” Loc. 7246-8052.
§66 “Literature” (Schaff 2014, Loc. 7246).
§67 “Unity of Apostolic Teaching” (Ibid., Loc. 7273).
Though the Christian life is primarily a life, it also has an important element of doctrine (Ibid., Loc. 7279), a human statement of the truth of God. Our doctrine is taken from the New Testament, through which we see the Old Testament more clearly (Ibid., Loc. 7305).
§68 “Different Types of Apostolic Teaching” (Ibid., Loc. 7331).
Schaff identifies several different shades of interpretation in apostolic doctrine, that which is primarily Jewish and Gentile, as well as temperamental differences in the authors (Ibid., Loc. 7346).
§69 “The Jewish Christian Theology - I. James and the Gospel of Law” (Ibid., Loc. 7362).
Some portions of the New Testament show Jesus as the fulfiller of the Law and the giver of a prophetic gospel. Schaff dispels the idea of a disagreement between Paul and James, observing they simply look at works from different directions (Ibid., Loc. 7404).
§70 “The Jewish Christian Theology - II. Peter and the Gospel of Hope” (Ibid., Loc. 7429).
Peter consistently looks forward to the hope found in Christ’s coming. This hope is based soundly on Jesus’ sacrifice for sin (Ibid., Loc. 7450).
§71 “The Gentile Christian Theology. Paul and the Gospel of Faith” (Ibid., Loc. 7465).
Paul’s theology consistently looks to the power of God’s grace to save by faith, regardless of works (Ibid., Loc. 7486). This salvation, needed by all, is found in Jesus (Ibid., Loc. 7501). Schaff discusses the Order of Salvation (Ibid., Loc. 7563ff). He observes that foreknowledge, foreordination, and all of election are simultaneous, though there are logical requirements of the order of events. In any construct, salvation is by God’s sovereign grace. This salvation in Christ was first made known to the Jews, then the Gentiles (Ibid., Loc. 7625). In the end, all believers will be saved and adopted in Christ (Ibid., Loc.7647).
Schaff then moves into several notes about different means of analyzing doctrine, providing a bibliography and various notes of Scriptures pertaining to events in salvation (Ibid., Loc. 7647ff).
§72 “John and the Gospel of Love” (Ibid., Loc. 7814).
As the last of the Gospel writers, John set the stage for future generations. His emphasis is on God’s love in Christ and the walk of the believer in love (Ibid., Loc. 7831). He is not as analytical as Paul, but “more ideal” (Ibid., Loc. 7835). John’s principal emphases are the doctrine of God (Ibid., Loc. 7852), Christ’s person (Ibid., Loc. 7863), Christ’s work to destroy sin (Ibid., Loc. 7894), and the work of the Holy Spirit (Ibid., Loc. 7919). The Christian life is one of forgiveness and grace (Ibid., Loc. 7940).
§73 “Heretical Perversions of the Apostolic Teaching” (Ibid., Loc. 7993).
Schaff identifies the basic heresies which the apostolic age faced. There were Judaizing tendencies (Ibid., Loc. 8003), Gnosticism (Ibid., Loc. 8014), and syncretism (Ibid., Loc. 8022). All denied the completed salvation through Jesus in one way or another.