Mazza, Enrico. "Chapter Four: The Anaphora of Hippolytus." The Origins of the Eucharistic Prayer (tr. Ronald E. Lane). Collegeville, MN: The Liturgical Press, 1995, 98-176.
Mazza notes that the anaphora found in Hippolytus' Apostolic Tradition can be identified as the root of much of the overall tradition of eucharistic liturg (Mazza 1995, 98-99). Identifying factors which may have served as sources for Hippolytus is more difficult than finding subsequent materials which draw on Apostolic Tradition, however. We simply have few liturgical texts which antedate Hippolytus (Mazza 1995, 100). The best candidate is the Didache.
Mazza finds that the content of the anaphora depends in part on the theological understanding of earlier Easter homilies, particularly that of Melito of Sardis (Mazza 1995, 103). The homilies, in turn, tend to depend on a typological reading of Exodus chapter 12. Mazza further considers the homilies to serve a primarily liturgical function, as they harmonize the text with liturgical actions (Mazza 1995, 104). This kind of homiletic occasion may be identified as early as Acts chapter 10:9-11. In this narrative, there is a preaching occasion, a breaking of bread, then a continued homily for the rest of the night (Mazza 1995, 105).
Mazza provides a Latin text of the anaphora from Hippolytus, with the parts which parallel Easter homilies in italics (Mazza 1995, 106-107), then compares the Hippolytan text with the homilies of Pseudo-Hippolytus and Melito of Sardis (Mazza 1995, 107-127). Here he does present the texts partly in English. Mazza concludes that the anaphora in Hippolytus shows evidence of significant conceptual influence from pre-existing Easter homilies, including some portions of those homilies which appear to be blocks of liturgy included in the homily (Mazza 1995, 127). The anaphora makes theological summary statements of ideas which existed beforehand.
Mazza explores the literature for an example of liturgical and literary development. This he finds, with Apostolic Constitutions book eight containing a reworked version of Apostolic Tradition, but reworked in such a way as to be closer in content to the Easter homilies (Mazza 1995, 129). This shows both a dependence on Apostolic Tradition and an influence of the Easter homilies.
The phrasing of the Words of Institution in Apostolic Tradition is of note. Hippolytus makes it an actual part of the anaphora, while in later usage it may stand separately (Mazza 1995, 135). Mazza finds the same pattern of the Institution as part of an anaphora to be derived from earlier Easter homilies. He further notes that there is not a clear literary relationship but that the conceptual relationship is certainly present (Mazza 1995, 139). Mazza also notes that Irenaeus seems to draw on the Easter Homilies, a fact which may associate Irenaeus with the Apostolic Traditions.
Mazza moves on to discuss epiclesis in the anaphoras in comparison with Easter homilies (Mazza 1995, 142). He finds in words surrounding the ucp an associate between the cup and the Holy Spirit, hence blood and life. The temes of the eucharist found in the homilies and in Hippolytus are those of bread and wine, the Spirit, and unity (Mazza 1995, 144). However, it is entirely possible that these themes were derived independelty of one another and that Hippolytus could be referring to either the unity of the Church or to the unity of the faithful who receive the cup. The conclusion is not definitive so the question of dependence remains open (Mazza 1995, 146).
While Mazza does not find a conclusive case for a relationship of Apostolic Tradition and the Easter homiles in the epiclesis he does find a relationship with Irenaeus in this part of the Apostolic Tradition (Mazza 1995, 147).
Mazza next turns his attention to structural, rather than theological issues in the anaphoras. He provides a detailed description of the anaphora as ofund in Apostolic Tradition (Mazza 1995, 150ff). Both the anaphora in Apostolic Tradition and hte possibly incomplete one found in the Strasbourg Greek papyrus 254 consist of two thanksgiving and one invocation, with a similarity in the second thanksgiving (Mazza 1995, 153). The tripartite structure is present in the Didache and the irkat ha-mazon, but a tripartite structure is fairly common. Mazza looks rather for the tripartite structure in which the second thanksgiving is for present gifts of God (Mazza 1995, 154). He finds this in both Apostolic Tradition and in the Martyrdom of Polycarp (Mazza 1995, 155). This parallel is also present in the version of the Birkat ha-mazon found in the Jewish Book of the Jubilees, dating to about 100 B.C., a text which Mazza finds to have been used by Christians as well (Mazza 1995, 157). Because of the structural similarities of the Birkat ha-mazon, the text in Polycarp, Apostolic Tradition, and the Didache, Mazza moves on to consider a possible relationship between the anaphoras in Apostolic Tradition and the Didache (Mazza 1995, 161).
While Mazza does not find direct structural relationships between the Apostolic Tradition and the Didache, he does find a link, as the anaphora of Serapion seems related to both works (Mazza 1995, 162). Though Mazza earlier stated he would be enagaged in structural analysis, the line between structure and thoelogical content cannot be drawn very clearly. However, he describes parallels in structure and content in numerous sources which may have been used for Apostolic Tradition, seeing that they stem, in turn, from Didache 10 (Mazza 1995, 164).
In the anamnesis of the Apostolic Tradition, Mazza finds the concepts of the death and resurrection of Christ to be closely tied together. This, in his view, was a distinctive emphasis of Sundays. The concept of salvation rooted in the death of Christ, rather than in his resurrection, was characteristic of Near Eastern theology in the early Christian period (Mazza 1995, 167).
The description of Jesus' institution of the Supper appears to Mazza to have been inserted int othe prayers, though probably due to liturgical practice, reflecting the tripartite structure described earlier in the chapter (Mazza 1995, 170). Because of theological differences which Mazza observes in the different segments of the text, he concludes that they reflect liturgical traditions which may have become stable at different times and which were gathered into the one text separately from one another (Mazza 1995, 174).