Tour of Christian History
Harris, J. Rendel. "Secondary Authorities for the Text." The Teaching of the Apostles, newly edited, with facsimile text and a commentary, for the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, from the MS. of the Holy Sepulchre (Convent of the Greek Church) Jerusalem. Baltimore: Publication Agency of the Johns Hopkins University, 1887, 14-61.
Harris observes that in New Testament scholarship we often compare quotations to actual New Testament manuscripts. A survey of the Didache Jerusalem Codex and quotations or statements of parallel ideas in works considered to be related can be helpful in evaluating the text (Harris 1887, 15).
A Latin fragment published in 1747 contains a partial account of the Two Ways material (Harris 1887, 16). Unfortunately, the manuscript, possibly from the tenth century, went through a time when it could not be found, though some printed versions remained known. Subsequent to the Gebhardt-Harnack edition of the work, the manuscript was re-located. Harris provides a print version of the Latin text (Harris 1887, 16-17). Harris observes that some of the particularly Christian material (Didache 1:3-2:1) is omitted in the Latin fragment.
The Epistle of Barnabas also shows marks of the Two Ways material in the Didache. Harris considers it settled that the Didache and Barnabas drew on the same early source, rather than showing an influence of one on the other (Harris 1887, 18). Harris places parallel readings with each other to illustrate their similarities (Harris 1887, 18-20).
The Apostolic or Ecclesiastical Canons, published in 1843 and since, are very important in the work of comarpsion (Harris 1887, 21). This text notably circulates under various titles. In this work, ideas from Didache 1-6 are placed into the mouths of different apostles. Harris considers the work to have a strong dependence on Barnabas (Harris 1887, 21). Harris illustrates this dependence with several passages. He then provides a text of the portions which are parallel to the Didache (Harris 1887, 23-25).
Apostolical Constitutions book seven has some strong parallels. Harris reproduces that text in Greek (Harris 1887, 25-33).
Harris moves on to briefer passages in which early Fathers make quotations or references (Harris 1887, 33). The passages are quite brief. However, Harris considers them to show that the Didache was known to the Fathers and that they felt free to use the ideas (Harris 1887, 34).
Because Harris considers it clear that chapters 1-6 of the Didache were generally known in early Christianity, he broadens his search to "embrace also the liturgical (c. ix.) and eschatological (c. xvi.) portions of the Teaching" (Harris 1887, 35). He particularly looks at the author of 2 Clement, and asks also if it uses the passage (i.3-ii.1) "omitted in Brnabas and the Latin Version" (Harris 1887, 35). He concludes that the author was familiar with the entirety of the Didache, including that part omitted in Barnabas.
In the second century, Justin Martyr is an important figure, as he explains numerous difficult concepts from the Didache. Harris considers the most valuable material to be in his Dialogue with Trypho, which is "a discussion between a Christian and a Jew" (Harris 1887, 36). Harris provides examples from chapters 35 and 111.
Hermas also makes use of some of the ideas from the Didache, in Vis. iii.4 and Mand. ii (Harris 1887, 37). Again, it seems to Harris that Hermas knew the Didache, including the portions omitted in Barnabas and the Latin manuscript (Harris 1887, 38).
Harris refers briefly to allusions in Theophilus of Antioch and Clement of Alexandria (Harris 1887, 38). Tertullian and Dionysius of Alexandria possibly refer to the ideas but it is not clear to Harris whether they were actually familiar with the Didache (Harris 1887, 39).
Harris finds some evidence for an influence of the Didache on the Sibylline Oracles and Pseudo-Phocylides (Harris 1887, 40). He supplies a number of parallels, which are mostly quite brief (Harris 1887, 40-45). Harris does observe that Funk (Prolegomena to Doctrina XII. Apost., pp. xix-xxii) takes issue with Harris' evaluation of possible connections (Harris 1887, 45). Harris describes the disagreement in some detail.
Origen, in De Principiis iii.2 makes a reference to Barnabas, considering it Scripture, but also seems to consider the Didache in that category (Harris 1887, 47).
Harris catalogs numerous references in Apostolical Constitutions to the Didache (Harris 1887, 47-49).
Pseudo-Ignatius makes some reference to the Didache, one which Harris considers to be a strong indication that he was familiar with the Didache (Harris 1887, 49). Athanasius and Pseudo-Athanasius make many references (Harris 1887, 50-51), as does Lactantius (Harris 1887, 52).
Harris further considers that Pseudo-Cyprian (Harris 1887, 52), Dorotheus of Palestine (Harris 1887, 53), and the writer of the Clementine Homilies (Harris 1887, 53-54), as well as John Climacus (Harris 1887, 54) had exposure to the Didache.
Harris observes that because Barnabas uses the Didache extensively, quotes from the Didache are very important in confirming the text of Barnabas (Harris 1887, 55). Consistency between texts, however, is somewhat difficult to prove in most cases. Harris provides a few examples where an apparently stray word or phrase may help establish an authoritative text.
Harris next provides the full text of a Latin tract, Doctrina Severini Episcopi De Sapientibus (Harris 1887, 56-58). Much of the text and its organization appears to have been adopted directly from the Didache (Harris 1887, 58).
Harris concludes with a sermon by Boniface of Mainz (Harris 1887, 59-60). He notes in the margin the many references to the Didache.
To all this he appends quotations form Eusebius, Athanasius, Furinus, Nicephorus Constantinopolitanus, and a Catalogue of Canonical and other books in the Bodelian Library, noting whether they consider the Didache to be part of Scripture of not (Harris 1887, 61).