Maas, Korey D., and Adam S. Francisco, eds. Making the Case for Christianity: Responding to Modern Objections. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 2014. Kindle Electronic Edition.
Chapter 1, “Defending the Existence of God.” by Joshua Pagan, Loc. 258-670
Christianity claims “an infinite, personal God beyond the universe who created it, sustains it, and who acts within it in a supernatural way” (Maas 2014, Loc. 265). Pagan defends a Christian view of a transcendental God against the contrary view of the New Atheists, using Richard Dawkins as an exemplar. Dawkins views faith as something which cannot justify itself and for which no evidence can be found (Ibid., Loc. 283). Pagan introduces the Kalam Cosmological Argument which gives rational warrant to religion (Ibid., Loc. 287).
The argument, in short, is that things which begin to exist have a cause, so the universe had a cause (Ibid., Loc. 295). To deny the major premise, “All things that begin to exist have a cause,” requires a universe that “came from nothing and was caused by nothing (Ibid., Loc. 323). Pagan illustrates that the scientific community broadly accepts the idea of causality. Even in quantum physics the vacuum is not empty (Ibid., Loc. 339).
The minor premise states that ‘the universe began to exist” (Ibid., Loc. 354). All credible models of the universe show that it is not eternally existing. Arguments for infinitude can work theoretically but they always fail in practice (Ibid., Loc. 377).
We are left, then, with a first cause. The argument must still be made for a personal creator (Ibid., Loc. 416). The only way a cause can be timeless and an effect temporal is for the ca a personal agent (Ibid., Loc. 422). We could also have an argument for personal agency based on the fact that creation was not necessary. It therefore shows volition (Ibid., Loc. 432). In fact, any pursuit of an origin of something pre-existent will fail (Ibid., Loc. 454). This is a normal pattern in investigations and must be allowed for cosmology as well.