Aristotle, and W. Rhys Roberts. Rhetoric. Mineola, NY: Dover, 2004. Kindle Electronic Edition.
Book II, chapter 11
Aristotle now considers “emulation.” “Emulation is pain caused by seeing the presence, in persons whose nature is like our own, of good things that are highly valued and are possible for ourselves to acquire, but it is felt not because others have these goods, but because we have not got them ourselves” (II.11, B1388a). Aristotle contrasts this to envy. Emulation says, for example, “He has a cold drink. It looks good. I don’t have one. I think I’ll get one.” Envy, on the other hand, says, “He has a cold drink and I don’t. I’m going to stop him from having it.” Aristotle’s opinion is that emulation tends to occur primarily in those who are already morally good. It also tends to look toward examples of other good people and things.
This is the end of Aristotle’s discussion of how arguments interact with emotions.