Wilson, Douglas, and Nathan D. Wilson. The Rhetoric Companion: A Student's Guide to Power in Persuasion. Moscow, Idaho: Canon, 2011.
Lesson 14, “Fallacies on the Street I” pp. 71-74.
Wilson has given a very brief summary of syllogistic forms. He observes, however, that in most discussions or debates there is little concern for the formal analysis. Here for “street fighting logic” he identifies “three types of fallacies: fallacies of distraction, of ambiguity, and of form” (Wilson 2011, 71). Fallacies of distraction, Wilson says, might in fact be correct reasoning in some contexts. Yet they may be used for deception. Wilson first discusses the ipse dixit fallacy (Wilson 2011, 71). This is a fallacy if the major premise is invalid. It works as follows:
If P says it, then Q.
P says it.
If the authority of P in the cited instance is true, there is no fallacy (Wilson 2011, 72).
Next, Wilson deals with ad populum. This is an appeal to mass opinion. It may or may not be fallacious (Wilson 2011, 72).
The ad baculum argument appeals to force. Again, it may be valid or invalid, depending on the situation and the appeal to force.
The ad hominem fallacy attacks a person rather than the argument (Wilson 2011, 72).
Bulvorism assumes an argument is wrong. The person “presenting the argument is attacked for why he believes it” (Wilson 2011, 73).
Wilson also brings up tu quoque in which an appeal is to be accepted because “you also” engage in the behavior in question. There is also ad ignorantium. Because there is no mention of something it must not exist. Finally, chronological snobbery simply affirms something as too odd or too new to be valid.