Wilson, Douglas, and Nathan D. Wilson. The Rhetoric Companion: A Student's Guide to Power in Persuasion. Moscow, Idaho: Canon, 2011.
Lesson 16, “Fallacies on the Street III” pp. 79-81.
Wilson now observes that informal fallacies may have structural problems. These arguments are very often used and should be identified.
Petitio principii - begging the question (Wilson 2011, 79). Although when it comes to ultimate questions such as existence some of this is necessary, in day to day situations it is not sound. Wilson observes “Honest Harry” can’t prove his honesty by his sign that says he is honest.
Post hoc ergo propter hoc (Wilson 2011, 80). Priority in time is asserted to be a cause. Causality is not necessarily indicated.
Either/or (Wilson 2011, 80). This limits choices to two even when there are more than two possibilities.
Complex (loaded) Question (Wilson 2011, 80). The question is phrased in such a way as to require an incriminating answer.
Aphorism (hasty generalization) (Wilson 2011, 81). This inductive argument could be valid but normally leaves out important data. Wilson’s example, “Herbert is a misogynist. I hate men.”