Aristotle, and W. Rhys Roberts. Rhetoric. Mineola, NY: Dover, 2004. Kindle Electronic Edition.
Book II, chapter 20.
Aristotle here discusses the two main types of argument which are applied to all rhetoric. They are “example” and “enthymeme”, which includes “maxim” (Aristotle II.20, B 1393a). An argument by example is based on inductive reasoning. The reasoning comes from examples either of real or invented “facts” (Aristotle II.20, B 1393a). The speaker tells the story from the past and urges action consistent with the action needed in the past. It is perfectly valid to make a parallel between an illustration and a real, current situation (Aristotle II.20, B 1393b). Fables work well for these parallels, but “it is more valuable for the political speaker to supply them by quoting what has actually happened, since in most respects the future will be like what the past has been” (Aristotle II.20, B 1394a). Aristotle urges use of Enthymeme, but provision of additional evidence using these examples.