Tour of Christian History
van de Sandt, Huub, & David Flusser. "Chapter 3: The Influence of the Two Ways in Christian Literature." The Didache: Its Jewish Sources and Its Place in Early Judaism and Christianity. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2002, 81-111.
Van de Sandt and Flusser consider the influence of the Two Ways material on Christian literature. While they concede it is difficult to identify a definitive version, they consider the Latin version as recorded in Doctrina Apostolorum to be the most accurate rendition (van de Sandt & Flusser 2002, 81).
In post-apostolic Christianity, Clement of Alexandria makes several allusions to commands of God, but they are phrased in ways similar to the same statements in the Didache (van de Sandt & Flusser 2002, 82). However, Clement shows no signs of knowing about Didache chapers 7-16. This suggests to van de Sandt and Flusser that the Two Ways was known as a separate document.
By the early fourth century there are a number of Latin references to the Two Ways in terms very similar to the Latin material from the Doctrina Apostolorum (van de Sandt & Flusser 2002, 83). Further, the source material is referenced in various ways by different authors. However, it is not identified as the "teaching of the twelve apostles." Rather, it tends to be referred to as "the Two Ways" (van de Sandt & Flusser 2002, 85). The materials are frequently found among instructions prior to baptism (van de Sandt & Flusser 2002, 87-89).
In later time periods, it is important to consider the continued use of the Two Ways materials. For this reason, van de Sandt and Flusser move to the Merovingian and Carolingian periods (van de Sandt & Flusser 2002, 89). Among the important works is the Rule of Benedict, particularly in chapter four (van de Sandt & Flusser 2002, 91). Van de Sandt and Flusser consider it very likely that the material which bers a similarity to Two Ways statements was borrowed from elsewhere, somewhere in the distant past (van de Sandt & Flusser 2002, 92). Since the passages do not seem tobe taken directly from the Didache, van de Sandt and Flusser comment on the passages as separate entities (van de Sandt & Flusser 2002, 92ff).
The fifteenth sermon of Ps. Boniface, with manuscripts dating back possibly to the ninth century, preserves material from the Two Ways (van de Sandt & Flusser 2002, 95). Here baptism is present as well, though a renunciation of Satan takes place followed by baptism, then the presentation of the Two Ways teaching. Van de Sandt and Flusser provide a photograph of the text (van de Sandt & Flusser 2002, 98-100). It is curious that the form of the Two Ways material does not seem derived from either the Greek text that ended up in the Didache text or from the Latin text which was related to that of Benedict (van de Sandt & Flusser 2002, 101). The text of the sermon, in Latin and English, is reproduced (van de Sandt & Flusser 2002, 101-103).
In this sermon, with its baptismal context, the renunciation of the devil and the pledge to live a holy life is phrased in terms of the Two Ways materials (van de Sandt & Flusser 2002, 105). The materials have been arranged to show parallel structures of evil and good.
Finally, van de Sandt and Flusser refer the reader to a series of six teachings, Ratio de Cathecizandis Rudibus, found in a collection of homilies (van de Sandt & Flusser 2002, 107). The work is possibly based on some catechetical work of Augustine. However, this was probably not prepared until about 800 (van de Sandt & Flusser 2002, 108). A number of the commands are in the form used in the Two Ways sources. Van de Sandt and Flusser conclude that some sort of a Two Ways document was available to the authors of these catechetical works (van de Sandt & Flusser 2002, 111).