Schaff, Philip. History of the Christian Church (The Complete Eight Volumes in One). Amazon Kindle Edition, 2014.
Volume 1, Ch. 4, “St. Peter and the Conversion of the Jews.” Loc. 3470-4319
§24. “The Miracle of Pentecost and the Birthday of the Christian Church, A.D. 30” (Schaff 2014, Loc. 3470).
The Day of Pentecost is a critical point in the life of the Christian church, the start of its growth. Schaff lists multiple resources. Pentecost, says Schaff, “was the first act of the mediatorial reign of the exalted Redeemer in heaven, and the beginning of an unbroken series of manifestations in fulfillment of his promise to be with his people ‘alway even unto the end of the world’” (Ibid., Loc. 3490). This outpouring of the Holy Spirit was for believers, male and female, of different ages and backgrounds, assembled together (Ibid., Loc. 3540).
Schaff discusses various theories about the nature of the speaking in tongues, concluding that all views have challenges but that it was certainly a prophetic sign (Ibid., Loc. 35778). He then (Ibid., Loc. 3600ff) discusses various views on “speaking in tongues.” Though his analysis is fairly exhaustive Schaff does not firmly conclude that any particular view is accurate.
§25. “The Church of Jerusalem and the Labors of Peter” (Ibid., Loc. 3831).
After a bibliography Schaff observes that Peter was largely recognized as the leader of the new Church (Ibid., Loc. 3862). Persecution grew as Jewish leaders saw Christianity as a heretical sect (Ibid., Loc. 3891) by the year 37. The next round of persecution was in 44 under Herod Agrippa (Ibid., Loc. 3899). After this time Peter appears only occasionally in the New Testament. Some suppose he settled in Rome, while others see him as more itinerant. Schaff thinks it unlikely that he was in Rome before 63 (Ibid., Loc. 3917).
§26. “The Peter of History and the Peter of Fiction” (Ibid., Loc. 3937).
Schaff identifies three aspects of Peter’s character from the Gospels as a genuine human, from Acts as one with a divine mission, and in his Epistles as one in whom God’s grace has triumphed (Ibid., Loc. 3942). Schaff details the Bible’s descriptions of Peter’s character. He then discusses mythologies which have grown up around Peter (Ibid., Loc. 3981ff). He is notably ambivalent about any suggestions that Peter was involved with the church at Rome in any significant way. Schaff makes a special note on the claims of the Papacy (Ibid., Loc. 4024) which he considers very unlikely. Certainly Schaff shows that if the Papacy was identical in the first century and several centuries later the data do not fit.
§27. “James the Brother of the Lord” (Ibid., Loc. 4068).
Schaff next discusses James as “the local head of the oldest church and the leader of the most conservative portion of Jewish Christianity” (Ibid., Loc. 4096). He rose to prominence in AD. 44 after the death of James the brother of John. Early histories note James as an early martyr, in the late sixties (Ibid., Loc. 4129). Schaff makes a point of distinction between the orthodox church at Jerusalem and the heretical Ebionites. The catholic Christians at Jerusalem had a long history until the time of Hadrian (Ibid., Loc. 4175). Schaff then discusses the many different people named James and the different theories about the relations of Jesus and his brothers.
§28. “Preparation for the Mission to the Gentiles” (Ibid., Loc. 4296).
Schaff observes that God prepared the way for Paul’s work by bringing the Gospel to Samaria by Philip (Ibid., Loc. 4301). The conversion of Cornelius (Acts 10) was also influential, as it broke down many cultural barriers (Ibid., Loc. 4308). The congregation formed in Antioch wa also instrumental in this process (Ibid., Loc. 4311).