Ozment, Steven E. The Age of Reform: 1250-1550 : An Intellectual and Religious History of Late Medieval and Reformation Europe. New Haven, Conn. ; London: Yale University Press, 1980. Kindle Electronic Edition.
Chapter 2, “The Scholastic Traditions” Part 3 “What Scripture Means: The Interpretation of the Bible in the Middle Ages” pp. 63-72
In the Middle Ages Christians developed an interest in interpreting the Old Testament in view of the Christian future to which it looked. “The Old Testament’s anthropomorphic descriptions of God and the many reports of his routinely harsh treatment of his own and other peoples seemed to contradict both classical reason and Christian charity” (Ozment 1980, 63). In the second century Marcion tried removing the Old Testament and those parts of the New which did not agree with his view of grace. The orthodox fathers insisted on a greater degree of continuity. The common solution was a strongly allegorical interpretation of Scripture. The danger was a potential to downplay non-allegorical passages.
Allegorical interpretation led some scholars such as Aquinas to pour their efforts into careful biblical exegesis. Rather than attempting to put an end to spiritual interpretation, these exegetes wanted to find a foundational meaning and draw spiritual applications from solid interpretation.