Wilson, Douglas, and Nathan D. Wilson. The Rhetoric Companion: A Student's Guide to Power in Persuasion. Moscow, Idaho: Canon, 2011.
Lesson 21, “Invention and Arrangement.” pp. 101-105
Wilson reminds the reader that in invention a speaker identifies ideas but in arrangement the speaker selects the ideas to use and puts them in order. The speaker tries to identify the need of the audience and speak to it (Wilson 2011, 101). In general, a speaking opportunity will follow a predictable pattern. First, an exordium, the introduction appropriate to the occasion (Ibid.). Next, a naratio may be necessary. This lays out the important details of the case. It is not the argument but lays out the facts (Ibid., 102). Next you may wish to use a partitio, describing various points of view as a road map for the argument (Ibid., 103). The propositio comes next. This is the thesis of your argument, using information the audience now knows. Fifth comes the confirmatio and refutatio in which the propositio is defended and opposing points of view are refuted (Ibid.). Finally, the peroratio concludes the argument, damages the ethos of the opponents, and creates sympathy for the speaker’s point of view (Ibid., 104).