Carson, D. A. The Gospel According to John. Leicester, England: Inter-Varsity Press, 1991.
“IV. Jesus’ Self-Disclosure in His Cross and Exaltation (13:1-20:31)” “B. The Farewell Discourse: Part One (13:31-14:31)” pp. 476-510.
Jesus makes an extended speech to his disciples after Judas’ departure during their meal. Carson begins his discussion of this discourse by detailing several topics scholars have recently studied. It is unclear precisely where the discourse begins (Carson 1991, 476). 14:31 seems to be a transition. There is some debate about the relationship of material before and after that verse (Carson 1991, 477). Some have broken the entire discourse into very small phrases from different traditions, assembled by force (Carson 1991, 479). Others have suggested that the discourse takes its shape from other literary farewell discourses (Carson 1991, 480). Some have noted the importance of the discussion of the Holy Spirit, here and in 1 John (Carson 1991, 480). Others have noted what Carson thinks is of primary interest. The passage emphasizes the ongoing life of the Christian, even after Jesus’ departure (Carson 1991, 481).
In John 13:31-38 the process of Jesus’ arrest has begun. Judas has left on his mission. Jesus begins speaking of glorification (Carson 1991, 482). Jesus tells his disciples of his departure. He tells them what he expects of them. Their obligation is a “new” command which is not new. Love one another. But it is expanded. The love is to be as Jesus has loved them (Carson 1991, 484).
In 14:1-4 Jesus encourages his disciples. The place he will go is for them a lso (Carson 1991, 487). The disciples are rightly troubled. They are enduring great turmoil. But Jesus’ departure is for their good (Carson 1991, 488). He will use it to care for them. Jesus has told his disciples of their destination. In John 14:5-14 Thomas has misunderstood. He wants more concrete information. He has not made sense of what Jesus said was clear (Carson 1991, 491). Jesus’ clarification is that he himself is the way to the Father. Thomas’ failure to recognize this is sad (Carson 1991, 494). Verses 9-11 make it clear tht Jesus’ teaching is not the goal. his person is the way to the Father. Commenting on John 14:12, Carson considers that the works of Jesus’ followers are “greater” simply because they are done in the context of the resurrected Lord (Carson 1991, 496).
John 14:15-31 speaks to Jesus sending the Holy Spirit to those who love him (Carson 1991, 498). This is the normal expectation of the Christian. The Paraclete will come to Jesus’ people (Carson 1991, 499). Though the timing of the Holy Spirit’s arrival is not entirely clear from the passage, it is clear that the Holy Spirit will come and later Jesus will come (Carson 1991, 501). Carson notes that Jesus’ love and the presence of God is shown in some special way to the Christians which is not visible to others (Carson 1991, 503). This, Jesus says, in verses 25 and following, is completely consistent with what he has previously told his disciples (Carson 1991, 505). The peace and love he gives are unbreakable. They are not like the substitutes we can generate (Carson 1991, 506).