Weston, Anthony. A Rulebook for Arguments. 4th ed. Indianapolis: Hackett Pub., 2009. Kindle Electronic Edition.
Chapter 9, “Oral Arguments.” pp. 67-72
In this final chapter, Weston outlines the specifics of making oral arguments. While the written argument is a static application of rhetoric, the oral argument introduces real-time interaction, which complicates matters.
“40. Reach out to your audience” (Weston 2009, 67). Shows of energy and enthusiasm may make an audience more prepared to receive a message.
“41. Be fully present” (Ibid., 68). Speak to individuals, not to the script.
“42. Signpost your argument” (Ibid., 69). Repetition, summary, and preview statements are more necessary in speaking than in writing.
“43. Offer something positive” (Ibid., 70). Find the positive points of the solution, not just the negatives of the problem.
“44. Use visual aids sparingly” (Ibid., 71).
“45. End in style” (Ibid., 72). Don’t go over time. Don’t just end abruptly. Give a conclusion.
Weston’s 45 rules for arguments are simple, clear and straightforward. They point out much that can be right in all communication.