Massaux, Éduard. "Chapter Seven: The Didache." The Influence of the Gospel of Saint Matthew on Christian Literature before Saint Irenaeus: Book 3: The Apologists and the Didache. (Translated by Norman J. Belval and Suzanne Hecht. Macon, Georgia: Mercer University Press, 1993, 144-182.
Though Massaux admits freely that dating of the Didache is unclear, he classes it with the later second century works. As he has done elsewhere, he begins with an evaluation of passages that show a strong relationship to Matthew's Gospel (Massaux 1993, 144). The opening line seems, in many ways, to continue directly from the command of Jesus i nMatthew 28:18-20, constituting what the apostles taught the nations. Though the Didache seems to come from an early time, Massaux notes tha at four points it refers to "the gospel" and that it is at least tempting to understand that as reference to a written document. Massaux contends that there is a clear literary contact between the Didache and Matthew (Massaux 1993, 145).
Massaux begins his analysis with litearry contact between the Didache and Matthew's Sermon on the Mount (Massaux 1993, 145). The command to love God and the neighbor (1.2) is a clear echo of a biblical command. While Massaux finds the wording equally close to Matthew and Mark, he thinks it is drawn from Matthew, since elsewhere the author does not borrow from Mark (Massaux 1993, 146). This command is followed immediately by a negative statement of the Golden Rule, from Matthew 7:12. The wording is more similar to that of Matthew than to Luke (Massaux 1993, 147). Further, Massaux notes that, like Jesus in Matthew, the Didache ties the rule to two different ways, one of life and one of death. In Didache 1.3, then, the author speaks of blessing and praying for your opponents. Massaux finds parallels in Matthew and Luke, but not identity of wording (Massaux 1993, 147-148). This is the normal process for the Didache. Massaux observes, "whenever the author refers to the text of Mt, he does not cite it literally, except for the Lord's Prayer" (Massaux 1993, 149). A paraphrase is par for the course.
Didache 1.4 and 5a presents a number of slightly discrete commands. Massaux compares these with statements foudn in the Sermon on the Mount (Massaux 1993, 150-151). Based on similarity of vocabulary Massaux sees strong evidence of literary contact. As to the remainder of Didache 1.5, there is a strong similarity to Jesus' warning of Matthew 5:25-26.
Massaux observes that the Didache does not borrow woodenly from sources. The material leading up to Didache 3.7 follows a pattern of Hellenistic Jewish moralistic teaching with a list of vices, then contextualizes the list with an almost direct quote of Matthew 5:5, "the meek shall inherit the land" (Massaux 1993, 152-153). This demonstrates comfort on the part of the author. Massaux continues with 6.2 which artfully draws on Matthew 11:29-30; 19:21; and 5:48.
The Didache makes connections which are similar to those in Matthew. In chatper 8, where the Lord's Prayer is presented, it is placed in a very similar context and nearly identical form to that used in Matthew, as opposed to the usage in Luke (Massaux 1993, 154).
In Didache 9.5 the author claims a quotation directly from the Lord. This specific statement is only in Matthew 7:6, "Do not give that which is holy to dogs" (Massaux 1993, 156). The context shows creativity, as the Didache speaks about teaching around the Eucharist which must be preserved. However, the quotation clearly shows dependence on Matthew. Another passage only found in Matthew speaks to the importance of reconciliation. It must be completed or the sacrifice/offering we bring is defiled (Massaux 1993, 156). Finally, Massaux observes that "prayers and alms" in Didache 15.4 strongly recalls Matthew chapter 6. Of importance is the reference to doing everything in accord with the "Gospel of our Lord." Because of the other references to passages in Matthew, Massaux takes the statement as a reference to a written Gospel account (Massaux 1993, 157).
Massaux next reviews passages from the Didache which are related to Matthew's Gospel but not the Sermon on the Mount. Didache 5.1-2 has a substantial catalogue of sins. Massaux provides a side-by-side chart of this passage, of Barnabas 20.1-2, and of statements from Matthew 15:19 and Mark 7:21 (Massaux 1993, 158-159). While there is some apparent contact with Matthew, the real similarities are between the Didache and Barnabas (Massaux 1993, 160). The same holds true for a catalogue of sinners which follows.
Didache 10.5-6 has multiple points of contact with Matthew. The arrangement suggests to Massaux a liturgical segment. The citations of Matthew are scattered broadly (Massaux 1993, 162).
Didache 11.3-9 again shows contact with various passages in Matthew. The instruction is to act toward apostles "according to the doctrine of the Gospel" (Massaux 1993, 163). While Massaux doesn't find any word for word quotation in the material, he finds many possible allusions. He reviews the five statements which follow individually (Massaux 1993, 164-166). Each shows some sign of literary contact with Matthew.
Didache 13.1-2 refers verbatim to Matthew 10:10, where the worker is worthy of his food (Massaux 1993, 166). Finally, in Didache 15.3 resolution of conflicts is very similar to Matthew 5:22 and especially Matthew 18:15-17 (Massaux 1993, 167). Massaux again sees evidence of the author of the Didache being familiar with, but not always quoting Matthew.
Massaux deals with Didache 16 verse by verse, identifying parallels in columns (Massaux 1993, 168ff). Because this chapter is less directly connected to my research interests I will not provide much detail of his investigation. The various statements show considerable relation the thought processes in Matthew.
Massaux finally moves briefly to texts which, while they may show a relationship to Matthew, he finds it doubtful (Massaux 1993, 174). Didache 2.1-3 speaks of a "second command" but it is not so much related to a first command of loving God and a second of love for neighbor. Didache 7.1 and 7.3 present a baptismal formula. The trinitarian formula, found in Matthew 28:19, is present. However, Massaux thinks the passage may have simply picked up the typical wording from common baptismal ritual (Massaux 1993, 175). Massaux concludes, then, that the author of the Didache was familiar with and even dependent on Matthew, though he did not reliably choose to make direct quotations (Massaux 1993, 175-176).
Massaux briefly reviews passages in which the Didache shows evidence of contact with other New Testament writings. An exception he notes is that the Didache does not seem influenced at all by Mark's Gospel (Massaux 1993, 177). Contact with Luke and John is minimal. Massaux does find a number of passages which may have some similarity in ideas to Acts, the Pauline epistles, the Petrine writings, and the general epistles, as well as Revelation. however, the passages are not lengthy, and are generally common ideas.