Jungmann, Josef A., S.J. "Chapter Seventeen: The Oriental Liturgies." The Early Liturgy to the Time of Gregory the Great. (translated by Francis A. Brunner, C.S.S. R., Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press, 1959, pp. 210-226.
In this chapter, Jungmann considers the internal structure and theological character of the various Eastern liturgies. His primary interest is in ways the Eastern liturgies are similar to each other and different from the typical Roman liturgy (Jungmann 1959, 210).
According to Jungmann the actual liturgical rites are generally considered more important in the East than they are in the West. In the East, they serve as cultural characteristics, while the West considers them more as a churchly but not national feature (Jungmann 1959, 210). Jungmann sees the cultural element in Eastern Christianity as more important than theological training. As an example, he finds churches in the East to be more influenced by Arianism in their liturgies, while in theWest the liturgy specifically rules out Arian ideas (Jungmann 1959, 211). Jungmann does, however, observe that the Eastern regions kept the early practice of conducting liturgy in the native language of the people, while in the West this was lost through maintenance of Latin after other languages had arisen. In some areas of the East, multiple languages came to be used for different parts of the liturgy (Jungmann 1959, 212). Writing in the 19t0s, Jungmann does suggest that there may come a time when the Roman Church would begin using the vernacular for at least some parts of the divine service (Jungmann 1959, 213).
The Byzantine rite has broad usage in the East, and normally includes some or all elements in the primary or secondary language of the people (Jungmann 1959, 213). In some cases Jungmann finds that archaic or dead languages are used in liturgy, but they were not archaic or dead when they came into use in the liturgy. However, the norm is that the liturgy comes to be celebrated in the common language of the region (Jungmann 1959, 214).
One of the important elements of schisms is theological error. Jungmann observes that though many schisms have been provoked by heresy, in almost every case the liturgy of those in schismatic groups has few traces of heresy (Jungmann 1959, 214).
In general, in the East, communion is not celebrated as frequently as in the West. Specifically, Jungmann notes that in the East the celebration does not occur with the priest alone, but requires the congregation to gather (Jungmann 1959, 215). Additionally, in the East, a deacon serves as a go-between for the priest and the congregation (Jungmann 1959, 216). The deacon leads the people in prayers and the celebration, rather than leaving the congregation as spectators of the prayers.
Another significant difference between Est and West is that in the East there is no offertory procession. Rather, there is a "Great Entry" when the celebrant enters to the altar and prepares the elements of communion (Jungmann 1959, 216-217). Jungmann describes this in some detail.
The form of the epiclesis is also different. In some partsof the East, in the Mass, there was a prayer that God would "send His Holy Spirit over the gifts or into the souls of the recipients" (Jungmann 1959, 218). In the West, however, it is a simpler prayer that God would accomplish his purpose in communion. In Egypt the prayer before the consecration says, "heaven and earth are full of Thy glory . . . Fulfill also this oblation through the descent of Thy Holy Spirit" (Jungmann 1959, 219). The most elaborate, found in the East, stems from a Syrian prayer, indentified near the end of the fourth century.
Jungman considers whether the liturgy is actually unchanging (Jungmann 1959, 221). Counter to the reputation of the Eastern liturgies being very fixed, Jungmann finds them to allow more flexibility than those of the West (Jungmann 1959, 221). The lessons in the East may be up to six. There is great variability. While there is not much singing in the Coptic liturgy, there is a good deal in the Byzantine forms. The prayers in the different rites, as suggested in earlier discussion, have a good deal of variation (Jungmann 1959, 222). However, in the prayers of the Mass, there are anaphoras which are particular to different areas. Jungmann describes a number of the regional anaphoras in some detail (Jungmann 1959, 224-226).