Kloppenborg, John S. "The Transformation of Moral Exhortation in Didache 1-5." in Jefford, Clayton (editor). The Didache in Context: essays on its text, history, and transmission. Leiden: Brill, 1995, 88-109.
Kloppenborg notes that the Two Ways section of the Didache may have drawn the interest of scholars primarily because the concepts can be found in multiple other documents, thus allowing some of the types of comparative studies comon in scholarship regarding the Synoptic Gospels (Kloppenborg 1995, 88). Kloppenborg then reviews the comparative scholarship in brief. He considers there to be clear evidence for a literary relationship of the Didache, the Epistle of Barnabas, and Doctrina Apostolorum (Kloppenborg 1995, 90).
Of note to Kloppenborg is the fact that the Didache and Doctrina lays the dualism of the Two Ways out as simply a way of life and a way of death. This is a more moderate type of dualism than described in other versions, where they are seen as angelic influences for good or evil (Kloppenborg 1995, 93). Kloppenborg describes the portrayals of the battling spirits of good and evil in some detail.
The Christian versions of the Two Ways documents contain relatively little material which is uniquely Christian (Kloppenborg 1995, 97). However, Kloppenborg notes the version in the Didache does show some traces of a move toward Christian tradition even outside of 1.3b-2.1, which is generally considered a specifically Christian interpolation (Kloppenborg 1995, 98). The commands for love, for instance, are positioned in a manner which suggests knowledge of Mark 12:30-31 and Matthew 22:37-39.
Kloppenborg notes that the Didache's use of commands against murder, adultery, theft, and false witness, in that order, reflect a knowledge of the text of Exodus 20, as well as Matthew 19:18. This statement also suggests that the Didachist was making an effort to produce authoritative moral teaching, drawing on a known authoritative document (Kloppenborg 1995, 100).
The "holiness code" of Leviticus 19:18 (a command not to seek revenge or bear a grudge, but to love your neighbor) is presented along with the command to love God (Kloppenborg 1995, 102). Kloppenbor sees this as a strongly Christian decision, reflecting the New Testament pattern of presenting the commands to love God and the neighbor in conjunction with one another (Kloppenborg 1995, 103).
Didache 3:1-6 repeatedly addresses "my son." This pattern, like the others Kloppenborg has mentioned, appears in Doctrina but not in Barnabas, suggesting again that Doctrina but not Barnabas depended on the Didache (Kloppenborg 1995, 104).
Kloppenborg concludes that the Christian Two Ways deserves re-evaluation as an early and significant document. He sees it as "Christianized" largely by being used in a specifically Christian context (Kloppenborg 1995, 108).