Aristotle, and W. Rhys Roberts. Rhetoric. Mineola, NY: Dover, 2004. Kindle Electronic Edition.
Book II, chapter 5.
Aristotle moves on to discuss fear, “pain or disturbance due to a mental picture of some destructive or painful evil in the future” (Aristotle II.5, B 1382a). He reminds us that some evils, such as foolishness, are not frightening. Also, generally if the evil is in the remotely distant future we do not fear it intensely. Indications of danger include enmity, anger and injustice in others (Aristotle II.5, B 1382a). “Speaking generally, anything causes us to feel fear that when it happens to, or threatens, others causes us to feel pity” (Aristotle II.5, B 1382a).
Fear strikes us first when something can harm us. (Aristotle II.5, B 1382b). Confidence is treated as the opposite of fear, caused by the opposite situations (Aristotle II.5, B 1383a).